7aa1
7Aa/1 Human body

7Aa/1 Human body

 

Name _____________________________   Class ____________

 

           

© Pearson Education Limited 2002 - copyright acknowledged

7aa2
7Aa/2 Human organs

7Aa/2 Human organs

 

 

 

Cut out and stick the organs on the human outline. Stick them on in order. Some have tabs that you need to cut around – do not cut these off!

© Pearson Education Limited 2002 - copyright acknowledged

7aa3
7Aa/3 Organs crossword

7Aa/3 Organs crossword

 

Name _____________________________   Class ____________

 

Using the clues below, fill in the correct words on the crossword grid.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

2

 

3

 

4

 

 

 

5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7

 

 

 

 

 

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

11

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Across

 1      The organ that controls our bodies.

 3      This organ stores, churns up and starts to break down our food.

 7      It makes food for a plant.

 8      These hold a plant in place.

 9      This organ makes new substances for the body.

10     This part of a plant transports water to the leaves.

11     These clean the blood.

Down

2       Digestion happens in these.

4       Different tissues group together to form an ___________.

5       It pumps the blood.

6       A colourful part of a plant.

7       These take air into your body

 

[ knowledge, literacy ]

© Pearson Education Limited 2002 - copyright acknowledged

7aa4
7Aa/4 The microscope

7Aa/4 The microscope

 

Name _____________________________   Class ____________

 

1       Label the microscope using words from the box.

 

           

 

eyepiece lens

focusing wheel

mirror

objective lens

slide

stage

 


2       Use these clues to complete the crossword.

 

Across

4       Lens closest to the slide.

5       The specimen is placed on this.

6       You need this to see something

Down

1          Lens that you look down.

2          What the slide is placed on.

3          A wheel to make the image clear.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3       Here are some instructions on using a microscope. Put the number ‘1’ next to the instruction you should do first. Put the number ‘2’ next to the instruction you should do next and so on.

 

         ______________     Look into the eyepiece lens.

 

         ______________     Place the smallest objective lens over the hole in the stage.

 

         ______________     Place the slide on the stage.

 

         ______________     Turn the coarse focusing wheel until what you see is clear.

 

         ______________     Turn the coarse focusing wheel to make the objective lens as close to the stage as possible.

 

         ______________     Adjust the light source.

 

[ literacy, knowledge ]

© Pearson Education Limited 2002 - copyright acknowledged

7aa5
7Aa/5 Where the organs are

7Aa/5 Where the organs are

 

Name _____________________________   Class ____________

 

1       On the diagrams below, write the names of the organs on the lines provided. Use the words in the box.

 

brain      intestines

leaf      liver      lung

root      stem      stomach

 

      

 

2       On the diagram of the human, draw in the position of the heart.

3       Select two of the human organs and explain what they do.

 

a        ______________________________________________________________________

 

b         ______________________________________________________________________

 

4       Select two of the plant organs and explain what they do.

 

a        ______________________________________________________________________

 

b         ______________________________________________________________________

 

[ knowledge, literacy ]

© Pearson Education Limited 2002 - copyright acknowledged

7aa6
7Aa/6 Organ transplants

7Aa/6 Organ transplants

 

Our organs are very important. If an organ goes wrong it usually leads to an illness and sometimes death. However, people’s lives can be saved by giving them an organ transplant. This involves taking an organ quickly from a dead person and putting it into a person who needs it.

 

Many people carry a ‘Donor Card’. This card gives doctors permission to remove organs from a person when they die. The organs can then be given to people who need them. Many lives have been saved in this way but the number of organs needed is much greater than the number available.

 

Kidney transplants are the most successful. Their job is to clean the blood and remove poisonous substances. Luckily, we all have two kidneys and people can survive with only one. However, if both go wrong then a transplant is needed. People who are waiting for kidney transplants are kept alive by regularly having their blood cleaned by a dialysis machine.

 

Other organs that can be transplanted are the heart, liver and lungs. The world’s first heart transplant was carried out in South Africa in 1967 by Dr Christiaan Barnard. Unfortunately, the man who received the new heart died 18 days later. This happened because the man’s body attacked the new heart and stopped it working. The new heart was rejected.

 

Rejection is a big problem in organ transplants. White cells in the blood patrol our bodies searching for and attacking things that are not made by our own bodies. This is normally useful, since our bodies get rid of many diseases in this way. However, the white cells will also ‘see’ that a new organ has been made somewhere else and attack it. Today, many new drugs have been developed to stop the white cells doing this. This means that people who have had transplants can look forward to many years of life.

 

1       Describe what is meant by the words ‘organ transplant’.

2       Why do people carry ‘Donor Cards’?

3       Write down four organs that can be transplanted.

4       a        What does a dialysis machine do?

b        What organs normally do this job?

5       a        Who carried out the first heart transplant?

b        How long did the person who received this heart survive?

c        Why did he die?

6       How do doctors ensure that a transplanted organ works successfully?

 

[ knowledge, literacy ]

© Pearson Education Limited 2002 - copyright acknowledged

7ab1
7Ab/1 Cell fact file

7Ab/1 Cell fact file

 

Name _____________________________   Class ____________

 

1       a        Are these plant or animal cells?

 

          ______________________________________________________________________

 

b        Which plant or animal are they from?

 

          ______________________________________________________________________

 

c        Which part of the plant or animal are they from?

 

          ______________________________________________________________________

 

d        Magnification ___________________________________________________________

 

e        Stain used (if any)  _______________________________________________________

 

2       Use this circle to make a drawing of one or two of the cells and add labels.

 

 


3       Are there any other special features of these cells?

 

         ___________________________________________________________________________

 

         ___________________________________________________________________________

 

         ___________________________________________________________________________

 

[ observing, presenting ]

© Pearson Education Limited 2002 - copyright acknowledged

7ab10
7Ab/10 In the cells

7Ab/10 In the cells

 

1       Each of the following sentences has at least one mistake in it. Rewrite each, correcting the mistakes.

a        The vacuole contains a substance called cytoplasm.

b        Animal cells have a cell wall, a nucleus and cytoclasm.

c        Chloroform is a green substance found in chloroplasts.

d        Microscopes have two lenses, the eye lens and the abject lens.

e        The magnification of a microscope is worked out by adding the magnifying power of the two lenses together.

2       You are given a microscope which has three objective lenses: ´10, ´20 and ´40. The microscope has two eyepiece lenses: ´5 and ´7.5. Make a table like the one below to show all the possible magnifications you could get.

 

           

 

Magnification of
eyepiece lens

Magnification of
objective lens

Total magnification

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

[ literacy, numeracy, knowledge ]

© Pearson Education Limited 2002 - copyright acknowledged

7ab11
7Ab/11 Inside cells

7Ab/11 Inside cells

 

The microscope was invented in about 1590 by a Dutch spectacles maker called Zacharias Janssen. Since that time the microscope has helped scientists to discover what plants and animals are made up of and how cells work. A light microscope, like the ones most often used, can magnify things up to about ´1500. Electron microscopes can magnify things up to about ´1 500 000.

 

Using electron microscopes, scientists have been able to see what cytoplasm is made up of. It’s not just jelly! It contains lots of very small parts called organelles. One of these organelles is the mitochondrion. Respiration happens inside the mitochondria. Other organelles are used to make new chemicals.

 

To measure the sizes of very small things, scientists have to use units that are smaller than millimetres. A micrometre (written ‘mm’) is 1/1000th of a millimetre; that is

1 mm = 0.001 mm. Animal cells are generally between 10 and 30 mm wide and plant cells are between 10 and 100 mm.

 

1       What sort of microscopes are most often used in schools and universities?

2       If a light microscope has an eyepiece lens of magnification ´15, what magnification of objective lens would be needed to get a total magnification of ´1500?

3       What would be the easiest type of microscope to use to look at:

a        whole water fleas which are 3 mm long

b        cell membranes?

4       Where are ‘organelles’ found?

5       a        Name one type of ‘organelle’.

b        Say what this organelle does in the cell.

6       a        How big is 1 mm in micrometres?

b        What is the symbol for a micrometre?

7       In millimetres, what range of sizes do animal cells come in?

8       If a cell which is 20 mm wide is looked at with a magnification of ´1500, how wide will it appear to be? Give your answer in the most convenient units.

 

[ literacy, knowledge, numeracy ]

© Pearson Education Limited 2002 - copyright acknowledged

7ab2
7Ab/2 It’s stained

7Ab/2 It’s stained!

 

Name _____________________________   Class ____________

 

In this experiment you will be trying out different stains on some cells.

 

1       Use the table below to record your observations about the stains you have used. You need to think which parts of the cell each stain worked on best.

 

Information

Drawing of the cells

Observations

Type of cell ______________

 

 

 

Stain used _______________

 

_______________________

_______________________

_______________________

_______________________

_______________________

Type of cell ______________

 

 

 

Stain used _______________

 

_______________________

_______________________

_______________________

_______________________

_______________________

Type of cell ______________

 

 

 

Stain used _______________

 

_______________________

_______________________

_______________________

_______________________

_______________________

 

2       a        Do you think you have done a ‘fair test’?  ____________________________________

 

b        Why? _________________________________________________________________

 

          ______________________________________________________________________

 

3       a        Which stain do you think is the best?  ________________________________________ 

 

b        Why? _________________________________________________________________

 

          ______________________________________________________________________

 

[ observing, considering ]

© Pearson Education Limited 2002 - copyright acknowledged

7ab3
7Ab/3 Building animal cells

7Ab/3 Building animal cells

 

1       Cut out the outline of the animal cell and the different parts. Stick the parts into the correct places on the outline.

         Stick the outline into your book.

2       Label the cytoplasm, cell surface membrane and nucleus.

 

           

                 

 

[ knowledge ]

© Pearson Education Limited 2002 - copyright acknowledged

7ab4
7Ab/4 Building plant cells

7Ab/4 Building plant cells

 

1       Cut out the outline of the plant cell and the different parts. Stick the parts into the correct places on the outline.

         Stick the outline into your book.

2       Label the cytoplasm, cell surface membrane, nucleus, cell wall, vacuole and a chloroplast.

 

            1

           

 

           2                                                                                 3

                                   

 

           4                                       5

                       

 

[ knowledge ]

© Pearson Education Limited 2002 - copyright acknowledged

7ab5
7Ab/5 Slide making

7Ab/5 Slide making

 

Name _____________________________   Class ____________

 

1          Fill in the missing words in the sentences below.

            Use the words in the box.

 

coverslip      eyepiece      magnified      microscope      objective      slide      specimen

 

a        Cells need to be _________________ to see them clearly. We can use a 

 

          _________________ to do this.

 

b        When using a microscope, the thing we are looking at is called the  _________________  

 

          and it is placed on a  piece of glass called a  _________________ . A drop of water is

 

          also added and another thin piece of glass called a _________________ is placed on top.

 

c        The lens of the microscope that is closest to the object we want to look at is called the 

 

          lens. The other lens is the  _________________  lens.

 

2       From the next set of sentences, circle the three that are the reasons we use a coverslip.

a        To flatten the specimen.

b        To stain the specimen.

c        To magnify the specimen.

d        To hold the specimen in place.

e        To stop the specimen drying out.

f        To heat up the specimen.

 

[ knowledge, literacy ]

© Pearson Education Limited 2002 - copyright acknowledged

7ab6
7Ab/6 Slides and microscopes

7Ab/6 Slides and microscopes

 

Name _____________________________   Class ____________

 

1       Using the clues below, fill in this crossword.

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6

 

 

 

 

 

7

 

 

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Across

2       The specimen is put on this.

3       The thin piece of glass put on top of the specimen.

6       All cells have one of these.

8       Slides and coverslips are made of this.

 

Down

1       We should lower a coverslip using a mounted.                                        .

2       What we look at using a microscope.

4       A microscope has two of these.

5       All living things are made of these.

7       Part of a theatre and part of a microscope.

 

2       From the crossword, write down the letters in the shaded squares. Now rearrange these letters to make a word. The word is something that all plant cells have.

 

            The word is    _______________________________________  .

 


3       Look at the diagram below. It shows somebody making a slide. Label the parts on the diagram using the words in the box.

 

coverslip      mounted needle      pipette      slide      specimen

 

 

[ knowledge, literacy ]

© Pearson Education Limited 2002 - copyright acknowledged

7ab7
7Ab/7 Plant and animal cells

7Ab/7 Plant and animal cells

 

Name _____________________________   Class ____________

 

1       Draw lines from the words to the correct part of each cell. The words can be used more than once or not at all.

cell surface membrane

cell wall

chloroplasts

cytoplasm

nucleus

vacuole

 

This is a diagram of an __________cell

 

This is a diagram of a __________cell

 

2       In the blank space in the sentence underneath each diagram, fill in the word plant or the word animal.

3       Draw lines from the parts of cells to their functions. The first one has been done.

 

 

[ literacy, knowledge ]

© Pearson Education Limited 2002 - copyright acknowledged

7ab8
7Ab/8 Cells and microscopes

7Ab/8 Cells and microscopes

 

Name _____________________________   Class ____________

 

1       Work out what the missing words are in the clues below.

         Fill in the words on the grid.

 

a        The cell surface _________________ controls what goes in and out of a cell.

 

b        When you see a specimen clearly down a microscope, it is in  _________________ .

 

c        The _________________ lens is closest to the stage.

 

d        A specimen is placed on a glass  _________________ .

 

e        The _________________ has a hole in it to let light through.

 

f        The _________________ is found in plant cells. It is used for storing things.

 

g        The _________________ is found in both plant and animal cells. It is like jelly.

 

 

a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

b

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

c

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

d

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

e

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

f

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

g

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2       The letters in the shaded part of the grid spell out a word.

 

a        What is the word? _________________

 

b        What is the job of this part of a cell? _________________________________________

 

          ______________________________________________________________________

 


3       Fill in the correct magnifications in the table below.

 

Magnification of eyepiece lens

Magnification of objective lens

Total magnification

´5

´10

 

´5

´40

 

´10

 

´150

 

[ literacy, numeracy, knowledge ]

© Pearson Education Limited 2002 - copyright acknowledged

7ab9
7Ab/9 Spot the mistake

7Ab/9 Spot the mistake

 

Look carefully at the pictures below showing some pupils making slides and using microscopes. Explain what each pupil is doing wrong.

 

                          

 

_____________________________                           _____________________________

 

_____________________________                           _____________________________

 

_____________________________                           _____________________________

 

                                              

 

                                               _____________________________

 

                                               _____________________________

 

                                               _____________________________

 

                          

 

_____________________________                           _____________________________

 

_____________________________                           _____________________________

 

_____________________________                           _____________________________

 

 

[ knowledge ]

© Pearson Education Limited 2002 - copyright acknowledged

7ac1
7Ac/1 Special animal cells

7Ac/1 Special animal cells

 

Name _____________________________   Class ____________

 

1       Fill in the missing words in the sentences below. Use the words in the box. Each word can be used more than once.

 

adapted      move      muscle      tissue

 

a        Some cells have special jobs to do. They often have special shapes to help them do their

 

          job. We say that these cells are  _________________ to do their jobs.

 

b        A group of the same type of cells, all working together, is called a _________________ .

 

c        A group of muscle cells all grouped together is called _________________  . Muscle 

 

          cells help us to _________________  .

 

2       Here is a drawing of a nerve cell.

 

           

 

a        Write in the words cell surface membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus on the correct lines.

b        How is its shape adapted to carry messages around the body?

 

          ______________________________________________________________________

 

          ______________________________________________________________________

 


3       Here is a drawing of a ciliated epithelial cell. How is it adapted to remove dirt from people’s lungs?

 

           

 

___________________________________________________________________________

 

___________________________________________________________________________

 

___________________________________________________________________________

 

[ literacy, knowledge ]

© Pearson Education Limited 2002 - copyright acknowledged

7ac2
7Ac/2 Special plant cells

7Ac/2 Special plant cells

 

Name _____________________________   Class ____________

 

1       Fill in the missing words in the sentences below. Use the words in the box.

 

hair      root      tissue      xylem

 

Plants have some special cells.

a        Some cells help to carry water around the plant. These are called ______________ cells.

 

b        Some plant cells help to take water out of the ground. These are called  

 

          ______________  ______________ cells.

 

c        A group of the same type of cells, all working together, is called a  ______________ .

 

2       Here is a palisade cell. It helps the plant to make food. Which part of the cell does this? Circle the correct letter.

 

                       

 

3       Here is a xylem cell. Which feature of the cell helps it do its job?  ______________ .

 

           

 

4       Here is a root hair cell.

 

           

 

a        Which part of the cell helps it do its job? Circle the correct letter.


b        On this drawing, what are the names of the parts labelled A, B and C?

 

          i         A is the __________________________________________ .

 

          ii        B is the __________________________________________ .

 

          iii       C is the __________________________________________ .

 

[ literacy, knowledge ]

© Pearson Education Limited 2002 - copyright acknowledged

7ac3
7Ac/3 Special cells

7Ac/3 Special cells

 

1          Here are some drawings of cells which are adapted to do special jobs. Write the name of
            each cell in your book. Use some of the words in the box.

 

ciliated epithelial      cytoplasm      muscle      nerve

nucleus      palisade      root hair      xylem

 

                                                     

                                     A                                                               B

 

                                                                    

                                     C                                                               D

 

2       Of the drawings above, which ones are plant and which ones are animal cells?

3       a        What is meant by the word adapted?

b        Explain how the shape of the root hair cell is adapted to help it do its job.

4       Here is a picture of a nerve cell (neurone).

 

 

a        Make a drawing of two nerve cells attached to each other.

b        When nerve cells are joined in groups like this, what do they form?

c        On your drawing label the nucleus, cell membrane and cytoplasm.

d        What do nerves do?

e        How does their shape help them do this?

 

[ literacy, knowledge ]

© Pearson Education Limited 2002 - copyright acknowledged

7ac4
7Ac/4 Cell theory

7Ac/4 Cell theory

 

Although Robert Hooke had discovered ‘cells’ in 1665, he did not understand the importance of his discovery. At that time, scientists knew that organisms were made of tissues and organs but they thought that these were not living. It was believed that only a whole organism was living, and that the parts that made it were not!

 

By the end of the eighteenth century, microscopes had improved so much that scientists were able to see cells in plants. Plant cells were much easier to see than animal cells because of their thick cell walls. Cell surface membranes, separating individual animal cells, were too thin to be seen. Microscopes continued to become more powerful and, in 1831, Robert Brown discovered a small, dark structure in each plant cell which he called a nucleus (after the Latin for ‘small nut’, which is what he thought it looked like).

 

In 1838 the importance of cells became clearer, when Mattias Schleiden came to the conclusion that all plants were made of cells. The next year another scientist, Theodor Schwann, discovered that all animals were also made from cells and that all living things started from one cell. However, he thought that new plant cells sprouted off from other cells. It was not until 1875 that Walther Fleming disproved this idea and discovered how cell division occurs, with a cell splitting into two, down the middle. Walther Fleming also developed the idea of staining cells so that he could see them better.

 

This century, scientists have discovered a great deal about cells and how they work, using the electron microscope which can see things in much more detail ever before.

 

1       In which year did Robert Hooke discover cells?

2       a        Explain what the word ‘tissue’ means today.

b        How does your answer to part a differ from what scientists thought in the seventeenth century?

3       At the start of the second paragraph it says ‘By the end of the eighteenth century, microscopes had improved so much …’ In what way do you think they ‘improved’?

4       Why did scientists find cells in plants before finding them in animals?

5       What job of cell surface membranes is referred to in the text?

6       Who discovered the nucleus?

7       When did Theodor Schwann say that animals were made up of cells?

8       Draw a diagram to show how Theodor Schwann thought a new plant cell would be made.

9       Name a stain that Walther Fleming might have used.

 

[ literacy, knowledge ]

© Pearson Education Limited 2002 - copyright acknowledged

7ad1
7Ad/1 Organ systems

7Ad/1 Organ systems

 

Name _____________________________   Class ____________

 

1       Fill in the correct word in each of the sentences. Use the words in the box.

 

circulatory      digestive      leaves      nervous      photosynthesis      roots      stem      system

 

a        A group of organs working together is called an organ ____________________ .

 

b        Plants take water in through their ____________________. The water travels up the

 

          ____________________. Some of the water is used to make food using

 

          ____________________. A lot of the water is lost by the ____________________ .

 

c        Food is digested in the ____________________ system.

 

d        The heart is part of the ____________________ system.

 

e        The brain is part of the ____________________ system.

 

2       On the diagram below, label the parts of the breathing system.

 

           

 

[ knowledge, literacy ]

© Pearson Education Limited 2002 - copyright acknowledged

7ad2
7Ad/2 Organ systems wordsearch

7Ad/2 Organ systems wordsearch

 

Name _____________________________   Class ____________

 

You will need three different coloured pens. Fill in the colours here

 

This colour <                           > shows an organ in the digestive system.

 

This colour <                           > shows an organ in the breathing system.

 

This colour <                           > shows an organ in the circulatory system.

 

These words are hidden in the grid below:

 

blood      gullet      heart      intestines      liver      lungs

mouth      stomach      vessels      windpipe

 

The words may be in any direction (even diagonally, but not backwards).

Once you have found a word, draw a line through it using the correct colour.

 

I

N

T

E

S

T

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H

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A

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T

D

S

F

G

H

K

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I

U

O

Y

M

W

G

G

H

T

U

O

M

G

O

I

J

U

G

H

L

J

A

H

U

N

J

L

F

B

U

H

C

J

T

D

A

L

B

B

N

A

H

A

H

P

H

E

Z

X

G

J

H

L

I

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V

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V

E

S

S

E

L

S

P

O

T

F

G

O

M

L

I

V

E

R

S

 

[ literacy ]

© Pearson Education Limited 2002 - copyright acknowledged

7ad3
7Ad/3 Cells, tissues, organs and systems

7Ad/3 Cells, tissues, organs and systems

 

Name _____________________________   Class ____________

 

1       a        Label the parts of this cell.

 

           

 

b        Which type of tissue does this cell form? _____________________________________

 

c        Which organ might this tissue be found in? ___________________________________

 

d        Which organ system would this organ be found in? ____________________________

 

2       Which organ system:

 

a        carries oxygen and food around the body? ____________________________________

 

b        breaks down food?  ______________________________________________________

 

c        takes oxygen out of the air? ________________________________________________

 

d        carries messages around the body? __________________________________________

 

3       In the following sentences, one organ is not correct. Put a cross through the wrong organ and write the name of the correct one in the space.

 

a        The breathing system contains the lungs and intestines. __________________________

 

b        The nervous system contains the brain and the little toe. _________________________

 

c        The circulatory system contains the liver and blood vessels. ______________________

 


4       The drawing shows an animal cell.

 

a        Draw two or three more diagrams to show the steps taken when this cell splits into two.

 

              ————®

 

b        What is the name of this process? ___________________________________________

 

c        What are the two new cells called? __________________________________________

 

[ knowledge ]

 

For a diagram of a nerve cell without leader lines or label lines see Worksheet 7Ad/4

© Pearson Education Limited 2002 - copyright acknowledged

7ad4
7Ad/4 Tissue matching

7Ad/4 Tissue matching

 

Name _____________________________   Class ____________

 

1       Complete the table to show what the name of each cell is, what tissue it forms and which organs it is found in.

 

 

Name

Tissue it forms

Organ it is found in

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2       In the space below, copy the pictures of the root hair cell and the muscle cell. Make your drawings twice the size of the ones in the table. Label their parts.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

[ knowledge, numeracy ]

© Pearson Education Limited 2002 - copyright acknowledged

7ad5
7Ad/5 Matching organs

7Ad/5 Matching organs

 

Name _____________________________   Class ____________

 

1       Find out what the excretory system is. Write down a couple of sentences about it.

 

         ___________________________________________________________________________

 

         ___________________________________________________________________________

 

         ___________________________________________________________________________

 

2       On the line beneath each organ, write its name. Then draw a line from each organ to the organ system(s) it belongs in.

 

                                       

 

               ____________          ____________            ____________            ____________

 

CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

 

NERVOUS SYSTEM

 

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

 

BREATHING SYSTEM

 

EXCRETORY SYSTEM

 

              

 

               ____________                       ____________                ____________

 

[ knowledge, research ]

© Pearson Education Limited 2002 - copyright acknowledged

7ae1
7Ae/1 Flower dissection 1

7Ae/1 Flower dissection 1

 

Name _____________________________   Class ____________

 

Flowers contain the male and female reproductive organs of plants.

 

1       Look carefully at your flower. What plant is it from? ________________________________

 

2       How many petals are there on your flower? _______________________________________

 

3       What colour are the petals?  ____________________________________________________

 

Using tweezers, carefully take off the petals from one side of the flower so that you can see the male and female reproductive organs. Your flower may look similar to the one below.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A petal from the flower – stick in or draw the shape of one petal in this box.

 

The flower looks like this – draw a picture showing the flower with half the petals taken off.

 

Now take off one stamen and remove the carpel. Stick them or draw them in the boxes. Label their parts if you can.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The stamen looks like this.

 

 

 

The carpel looks like this.

 

4       How many stamens are there in the flower? ________________________________________

 

[ knowledge, observing, presenting ]

© Pearson Education Limited 2002 - copyright acknowledged

7ae2
7Ae/2 Flower dissection 2

7Ae/2 Flower dissection 2

 

Flowers are organ systems which contain the male and female reproductive organs of plants.

 

1       Look carefully at your flower. What plant is it from?

2       What are reproductive organs used for?

3       How many petals are there on your flower? 

4       What colour are the petals?

 

Using tweezers, carefully take off the petals from one side of the flower so that you can see the male and female reproductive organs.

 

5       Draw your flower and label the parts.

6       How many stamens are there in the flower?

7       a        Which part of the flower is the male reproductive organ? 

b        What is the name of the sex cells that are produced here?

c        In which part are these sex cells found?

8       a        Which part of the flower is the female reproductive organ?

b        What is the name of the sex cells that are produced here?

c        What is the name of the containers that each sex cell is found in?

d        In which part are these containers found?

 

Optional extra

Ask your teacher to cut the ovary in half. Examine the inside of the ovary with a hand lens. Can you see the ovules?

 

9       a        How many ovules are there?

b        What colour are they?

 

[ knowledge, observing, presenting ]

© Pearson Education Limited 2002 - copyright acknowledged

7ae3
7Ae/3 Growing pollen tubes 1

7Ae/3 Growing pollen tubes 1

 

Name _____________________________   Class ____________

 

Which strength of sugar solution is best for growing pollen tubes?

 

Apparatus

        Cavity slides

        Sugar solutions

        Coverslips

        Pipette

        Pollen

        Paintbrush

        Mounted needle

        Some stain

        Microscope

 

Method

1       Choose which strengths of sugar solution you are going to use. Write them down. 

 

         ___________________________________________________________________________

 

2       Place a drop of sugar solution onto a slide.

3       Using a mounted needle or paintbrush, take some pollen and place it in the sugar solution.

4       Carefully lower a coverslip onto the pollen.

5       Do steps 1–4 again, using a different strength of sugar solution.

6       Look carefully at both slides using a microscope.

7       Leave the slides in a warm place for 30 minutes and then look at them again.

 

Prediction

Write down which sugar solution you think will be best for growing pollen tubes.

 

________________________________________________________________________________

 

Why do you think this?

 

________________________________________________________________________________

 

________________________________________________________________________________

 


Recording your results

Draw a picture of a pollen grain at the start of your experiment. Draw pictures to show what your pollen grains looked like after 30 minutes.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The drawing shows a pollen grain from a  ______________________    flower at the start of the experiment.

 

The picture shows the pollen grain after 30 minutes in a sugar solution of strength

______________________ .

 

The picture shows the pollen grain after 30 minutes in a sugar solution of strength

_________________________ .

 

Not all pollen grains will grow tubes.

 

Count 20 pollen grains in each type of sugar solution. Write down how many have grown tubes:

 

In the sugar solution of strength ____________________ , ____________________ out of 20 grew tubes.

 

In the sugar solution of strength ____________________ , ____________________  out of 20 grew tubes.

 

Considering your results/conclusions

Which sugar solution made the pollen tubes grow best?

 

________________________________________________________________________________

 

How do you know this?

 

________________________________________________________________________________

 

Why is it a good idea to count only 20 pollen grains and not all of them?

 

________________________________________________________________________________

 

________________________________________________________________________________

 

Use your results to predict what would happen if you used water instead of a

sugar solution.

 

________________________________________________________________________________

 

________________________________________________________________________________

 

[ knowledge, observing, presenting, considering ]

© Pearson Education Limited 2002 - copyright acknowledged

7ae4
7Ae/4 Growing pollen tubes 2

7Ae/4 Growing pollen tubes 2

 

How is pollen tube growth affected by different strengths of sugar solution?

 

Apparatus

        Cavity slides

        Sugar solutions

        Coverslips

        Pipette

        Pollen

        Paintbrush

        Mounted needle

        Some stain

        Microscope

 

Method

1       Choose which strengths of sugar solution you are going to use.

2       Place a drop of sugar solution onto a slide.

3       Using a mounted needle or paintbrush, take some pollen and place it in the sugar solution.

4       Carefully lower a coverslip onto the pollen.

5       Do steps 1–4 again, for each different strength of sugar solution.

6       Look carefully at both slides using a microscope.

7       Leave the slides in a warm place and look at them after 30 minutes.

8       Think how you are going to measure the effect of the sugar solution. You could try to find a way of measuring the lengths of the pollen tubes. Or you could take a sample of 20 pollen grains in each type of sugar solution and count how many have grown tubes.

 

1       Write down the name of the flower that your pollen came from.

2       Write down what you did.

 

Prediction

3       Make a prediction. Write down what you think will happen.

 

Recording your results

 4      Make drawings to show what the pollen grains looked like at the start of the experiment and what they looked like when pollen tubes were growing.

 5      Draw a table of your results. You should include the strengths of sugar solutions that you used. Also include the lengths of the tubes or the number that grew tubes in your sample of 20.

 6      Use the data in your table to draw a bar chart.

 


Considering your results/conclusions

 7      a        Which sugar solution allowed the best growth of pollen tubes?

b        How do you know this?

c        Do your results agree with your prediction? If not, explain why.

 8      Use your results to say what you think would happen if you had used water instead of sugar solution.

 9      The stigma is responsible for producing sugar solution. The stigmas from different plants produce different strengths of sugar solution. Use your results to say what strength of sugar solution you think the stigma of this flower produces.

 

Evaluation

10     How might you improve this practical?

 

[ knowledge, planning, observing, presenting, considering, evaluating ]

© Pearson Education Limited 2002 - copyright acknowledged

7ae5
7Ae/5 Inside a flower

7Ae/5 Inside a flower

 

The drawings below show parts of a flower.

 

1       Cut out the outline of the flower and the different parts. Stick the other parts in the correct place on the basic shape of the flower. Stick the outline into your book.

2       Label as many of the parts as you can.

3       Colour in the female part of the flower.

4       One of the parts is labelled ‘sepal’. Try to find out what it does and write this down.

 

Parts of a flower

 

                  

 

[ knowledge, observing, research ]

© Pearson Education Limited 2002 - copyright acknowledged

7ae6
7Ae/6 Pollination and fertilisation

7Ae/6 Pollination and fertilisation

 

1       Look at the pictures below. Write numbers on the lines above each picture to show the correct order in which pollination and fertilisation happen.

            ________________    ________________    ________________    ________________

 

                     

 

The male nucleus from the pollen joins the nucleus in the egg cell. This is fertilisation.

An embryo forms. It is found inside a seed inside a fruit.

 

The pollen grain grows a pollen tube. It grows towards the egg cell.

 

The pollen grain lands on the stigma. This is pollination.

 

 

2       Draw lines from the ‘label boxes’ above to indicate what each picture shows.

3       On the diagrams label each of the following parts once.

egg cell       fruit       ovary       pollen grain       

pollen tube       seed       stigma       style

 

[ knowledge, literacy ]

© Pearson Education Limited 2002 - copyright acknowledged

7ae7
7Ae/7 Looking at flowers

7Ae/7 Looking at flowers

 

Name _____________________________   Class ____________

 

1       The drawing below shows a flower seen from above. Imagine that the flower is cut down the middle along the dotted line.

 

           

 

 

a        Draw a picture of what you think the flower would look like inside.

b        Label these parts on your drawing: anther, carpel, filament, ovary, petal, stamen, stigma, style.

 

2       Explain what is meant by ‘sexual reproduction’. ____________________________________

 

___________________________________________________________________________

 

___________________________________________________________________________

 

3       What are ‘sex cells’? __________________________________________________________

 

___________________________________________________________________________

 

4       Many flowers have sepals. Find out what sepals are for and write this down.

 

___________________________________________________________________________

 

___________________________________________________________________________

 

___________________________________________________________________________

 

[ literacy, knowledge, research, observing, presenting ]

© Pearson Education Limited 2002 - copyright acknowledged

7ae8
7Ae/8 Plant fertilisation

7Ae/8 Plant fertilisation

 

Name _____________________________   Class ____________

 

1       The drawing below shows a pollen tube starting to grow.

 

           

 

a        Complete the drawing to show where the pollen tube will end up.

b        Label the parts of the diagram. Use the words in the box.

 

egg cell      ovary      ovule      pollen grain      pollen tube      stigma      style

 

2       Fill in the missing words in the following sentences.

         Use the words in the box. Each word may be used more than once.

 

egg    embryo    fertilisation    nucleus    ovule    pollen    seed    stigma    style    tube

 

When a _______________ grain lands on a _______________ , a pollen  _______________

 

starts to grow. This grows down the _______________ and into the ovary. It then grows

 

towards an _______________.  Here it finds an  _______________ cell. The nucleus from the

 

pollen _______________ then joins with the _______________ in the _______________

 

cell. This is called _______________. An  _______________  now grows inside the ovule.

 

The ovule turns into a _______________.

 

[ literacy, knowledge ]

© Pearson Education Limited 2002 - copyright acknowledged

7ae9
7Ae/9 Variety

7Ae/9 Variety

 

Sexual reproduction allows features from two plants to be mixed together. The new plant is a new variety. Think about red and green apples. They are all apples and so are the same species. The different apples are different varieties.

 

1       Look at the plants below.

a        Which feature of plant C comes from plant A?

b        Which feature of plant C comes from plant B?

 

           

 

2       Look at these plants.

 

           

 

a        Which feature of plant X comes from plant V?

b        Which feature of plant W is found in plant Z?

c        What are the differences between plants X and Y?

d        Which features of plant Z come from plant X?

e        Which feature of plant Z comes from plant Y?

3       Suppose you are a plant breeder. Which of these plants would you use to try to make plants with the following features?

 

           

 

a        A plant that was tall, with round leaves and flowers with 6 petals.

b        A plant that was short, with round leaves and flowers with 4 petals.

c        In fact, getting the variety of plant you want is not quite that simple! The features of the parent plants may or may not end up in the new plant. Make a table to show eight different mixtures of features you might get in a new plant produced from plants D
and F.

 

[ knowledge, observation ]

© Pearson Education Limited 2002 - copyright acknowledged

7asumm
7A Summary Sheets

7A Summary Sheets

 

Cells and their functions

 

All living things are made from cells. There are two basic types of cell:

 

            Animal cell                                             Plant cell

 

 

Cells are very small. A microscope is used to see them.

 

To use a microscope you:

i        Place the smallest objective lens over the hole in the stage.

ii       Turn the focusing wheel to move the objective lens close to the stage.

iii      Place the slide on the stage.

iv      Adjust the light source or mirror.

v       Look into the eyepiece lens

vi      Turn the focusing wheel until what you see is clear (in focus).

 

 

A microscope makes things appear bigger. It magnifies things. There are two lenses in a microscope. To work out the total magnification you multiply the magnification of the objective lens by the magnification of the eyepiece lens.

 


The object you want to look at using a microscope is called the specimen. It has to be thin to let light get through it. It is placed, with a drop of water, onto a slide. A coverslip is put on top. The coverslip stops the specimen from drying out, holds it flat and stops it moving. A stain might be used to help you see parts of the cell. 

 

Some cells have special shapes. They are adapted to do certain jobs.

 

 

 

Cilated epithelial cells are found in tubes leading to the lungs. The strands at the top (cilia) wave about to move dirt out of the lungs.

 

Muscle cells are able to change length. This helps us to move.

 

Nerve cells (neurones) are long so that messages can be carried around the body quickly.

 

 

Root hair cells in plant roots take water out of the ground quickly. The root hair gives the water more surface to get into the cell.

 

Palisade cells in plant leaves are packed with chloroplasts to help the plant make food.

 

 

A group of cells that are the same, all doing the same job, is called a tissue (e.g. muscle tissue). A group of different tissues working together to do an important job makes an organ. For example the heart is an organ and is made of muscle tissue and nerve tissue.

 


Organs have very important jobs:

 

 

 

Organs often work together in organ systems.

 

Some important organ systems:

 

Organ system

Organs

Job

Breathing system

Windpipe (trachea), lungs

Takes air into the body

Circulatory system

Heart, blood vessels

Carries oxygen and food around the body

Digestive system

Mouth, gullet, stomach, intestines

Breaks down our food

Flower

Stamen, carpel

Used for sexual reproduction in plants

Nervous system

Brain, spinal cord, nerves

Carries messages around the body

 

Sex cells are produced by the reproductive organs. In plants, these are contained inside flowers. Sex cells are used for sexual reproduction which needs two parents. The offspring from sexual reproduction are different from the parents; they are new varieties.

 

 

The pollen grains need to be carried to the stigma of another flower. They can be carried by insects or the wind. The carrying of pollen from an anther to a stigma is called pollination.

 


Once on the stigma, a pollen grain grows a pollen tube which enters the ovule containing an egg cell. The nucleus from the pollen grain then joins with the nucleus inside the egg cell. This is called fertilisation.

 

                                                                                         

 

For a diagram of the organs of the body, a microscope and a plant cell without leader lines or labels see End of Unit Test 7A.

© Pearson Education Limited 2002 - copyright acknowledged

7atarget
7A Target Sheet

7A Target Sheet

 

Name _____________________________   Class ____________

 

Topic

 

Targets

Before the unit

I have learned this

I have revised this

7Aa

1

Know what an organ is.

 

 

 

 

2

Know what organs are made of.

 

 

 

 

3

Know the names and positions of the major plant and human organs.

 

 

 

 

4

Know what the major plant and human organs do.

 

 

 

7Ab

1

Know what a cell is and the basic parts of animal and plant cells.

 

 

 

 

2

Know what the parts of cells do.

 

 

 

 

3

Know the basic parts of and how to use a microscope.

 

 

 

 

4

Know how to make slides.

 

 

 

7Ac

1

Know what a tissue is.

 

 

 

 

2

Know how some animal cells are adapted to their functions.

 

 

 

 

3

Know how palisade and root hair cells are adapted to their functions.

 

 

 

 

4

Know what cell division is.

 

 

 

7Ad

1

Know what an organ system is.

 

 

 

 

2

Know the names of some common tissues found in organs.

 

 

 

 

3

Know the functions of the digestive, breathing, circulatory and nervous systems.

 

 

 

 

4

Know the names of organs in the digestive, breathing, circulatory and nervous systems.

 

 

 

7Ae

1

Know what sexual reproduction in plants is and the parts of the male and female reproductive organs in a flower.

 

 

 

 

2

Know what pollination is.

 

 

 

 

3

Know what fertilisation is.

 

 

 

 

4

Know how fertilisation happens in flowers.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

© Pearson Education Limited 2002 - copyright acknowledged

7aword
7A Word Sheets

7A Word Sheets

 

Word sheets that include new words from the ‘Focus on:’ pages are available on the Exploring Science website.

 

7Aa – Human organs/Organisation/Seeing is believing

 

Word

Pronunciation

Meaning

brain

 

Organ that controls what the body does.

eyepiece lens

 

Part of the microscope you look down.

focusing wheel

 

Wheel on a microscope that moves parts of the microscope to get the image into focus.

heart

 

Organ that pumps blood.

image

 

What you see down a microscope.

intestine

in-test-in

The small intestine is an organ used to digest and absorb food.

The large intestine is an organ which removes water from unwanted food.

kidneys

 

Organs used to clean the blood and make urine.

leaf

 

Plant organ used to make food using photosynthesis.

liver

 

Organ used to make and destroy substances in our bodies.

lungs

 

Organs used to take oxygen out of the air and put waste carbon dioxide into the air.

magnification

mag-nif-ick-ay-shun

How much bigger a microscope makes something appear.

microscope

my-crow-scope

Used to magnify small things.

objective lens

 

Part of the microscope that is closest to what you are looking at.

organ

 

A large part of a plant or animal that does a very important job.

photosynthesis

foto-sinth-e-sis

Process that plants use to make their own food. It needs light to work.

root

 

Plant organ used to take water out of the soil.

root hair tissue

 

Found in roots. Takes in water from the soil.

skin

 

Organ used for protection and feeling.

slide

 

Glass sheet that a specimen is put on.

specimen

spess-im-men

What you look at down a microscope.

stage

 

Part of the microscope. You put slides on it.

stem

 

Plant organ used to take water to the leaves and to support the leaves.

stomach

stum-ack

Organ used to store and break up food.

tissue

 

Organs are made of different tissues.

xylem tissue

 

Found in roots, stems and leaves. Transports water.

 

 


7Ab – On the slide/Building a life

 

Word

Pronunciation

Meaning

cell

sell

The basic unit which living things are made of.

cell surface membrane

mem-brain

Controls what goes into and out of a cell.

cell wall

 

Tough wall around plant cells. Helps to support the cell.

chlorophyll

klor-O-fill

Green substance found inside chloroplasts.

chloroplast

klor-O-plast

Green disc containing chlorophyll. Found in plant cells. Where the plant makes food using photosynthesis.

coverslip

 

Thin piece of glass used to hold a specimen in place on a slide.

cytoplasm

site-O-plaz-m

Jelly inside a cell where the cell’s activities happen.

magnification

mag-nif-ick-ay-shun

How much bigger a microscope makes something appear.

microscope

my-crow-scope

Used to magnify small things.

nucleus

new-clee-us

Controls what a cell does.

photosynthesis

foto-sinth-e-sis

Process that plants use to make their own food. It needs light to work. Carbon dioxide and water are used up. Food and oxygen are produced.

slide

 

Glass sheet that a specimen is put on.

specimen

spess-im-men

What you look at down a microscope.

stain

 

Dye used to colour parts of a cell to make them easier to see.

vacuole

vack-you-oll

Storage space in plant cells.

 

 


7Ac – Shaped for the job

 

Word

Pronunciation

Meaning

adapted

 

When something has certain features to help it do a particular job. When the features of a cell help it do its job, the cell is said to be ‘adapted’ to its job.

cilia

sil-lee-ah

Small hairs on some cells.

ciliated

sil-lee-ayted

Having cilia.

ciliated epithelial cell

sil-lee-ayted

ep-pee-theel-ee-al

Cell with cilia found in the lungs.

muscle cell

muss-ell

Cell that can change its length and so help us to move.

nerve cell

 

Cell that carries messages around the body.

neurone

 

Another name for a nerve cell.

palisade cell

pal-iss-aid

Cell found in leaves which contains many chloroplasts.

root hair cell

 

Cell found in roots. It has a large surface area to help the cell absorb water quickly.

tissue

tiss-you

A group of the same cells all doing the same job.

xylem tube

zy-lem

Hollow tube formed from xylem cells and used to carry water up a plant.

 

 

7Ad – All systems go/Cell division

 

Word

Pronunciation

Meaning

breathing system

bree-thing

Takes in oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide from our bodies.

cell division

 

When a cell splits in two. Cells are made using cell division.

circulatory system

serk-you-late-or-ee

Carries oxygen and food around the body.

daughter cell

 

The two new cells made by cell division are called daughter cells.

digestive system

die-jest-iv

Breaks down our food.

nervous system

nerve-us

Carries messages around the body.

organ system

 

Collection of organs working together to do a very important job.

 

 


7Ae – A seedy story

 

Word

Pronunciation

Meaning

anther

 

Part of the stamen. It produces pollen grains.

carpel

car-pull

Female reproductive organ found in flowers. It is made of a stigma, style and ovary.

egg cell

 

The female sex cell in plants.

embryo

em-bree-O

Tiny plant, found inside a seed, with a very small shoot and a very small root.

fertilisation

fert-ill-eyes-ay-shun

Joining of a male sex cell with a female sex cell.

fertilised egg cell

 

What is produced when a male sex cell fuses with an egg cell.

filament

 

Part of the stamen. It supports the anther.

flower

 

Organ system containing reproductive organs – carpel (female), stamen (male).

fruit

 

Something used to carry seeds. Can be fleshy or dry.

nucleus

new-clee-us

Controls what a cell does.

ovary

O-very

Part of the carpel. It contains ovules, each of which contains an egg cell.

ovule

ov-you’ll

Contains egg cells. Is found in the ovary.

pollen grain

 

The male sex cell in plants.

pollen tube

 

Tube that grows from a pollen grain down through the stigma and style and into the ovary.

pollination

poll-in-ay-shun

Transfer of pollen from an anther to a stigma.

reproductive organ

 

Organ that produces sex cells.

seed

 

Contains a plant embryo and a store of food.

seed coat

 

Hard outer covering of a seed.

sex cell

 

A cell used for sexual reproduction.

sexual reproduction

re-pro-duck-shun

Producing new organisms by combining a male and a female sex cell from two different parents.

stamen

stay-men

Male reproductive organ found in flowers. It is made of an anther and a filament.

stigma

 

Part of the carpel. It is where pollen lands.

style

 

Part of the carpel connecting the stigma to the ovary.

variety

 

A plant or animal that is in some way different from its parents.

 

© Pearson Education Limited 2002 - copyright acknowledged