14. Waves


(a) describe what is meant by wave motion as illustrated by vibration in ropes, springs and ripple tanks.

(b) show an understanding and use the terms displacement[], amplitude, phase difference, period[], frequency, wavelength[] and speed.

(c) deduce, from the definitions of speed, frequency and wavelength, the equation ν = fλ.

(d) recall and use the equation ν = fλ.

(e) show an understanding that energy is transferred due to a progressive wave.

(f) recall and use the relationship, intensity[] (amplitude)2.

(g) compare transverse and longitudinal waves.

* (h) analyse and interpret graphical representations of transverse and longitudinal waves.

(i) show an understanding that polarisation[] is a phenomenon associated with transverse waves.

* (j) determine the frequency of sound using a calibrated c.r.o.

* (k) determine the wavelength[] of sound using stationary waves.

* (l) state that all electromagnetic waves travel with the same speed in free space and recall the orders of magnitude[] of the wavelengths of the principal radiations from radio waves to γ-rays.

15. Superposition[]


* (a) explain and use the principle of superposition in simple applications.

* (b) show an understanding of experiments which demonstrate stationary waves[] using microwaves, stretched strings and air columns.

* (c) explain the formation of a stationary wave using a graphical method, and identify nodes and antinodes.

(d) explain the meaning of the term diffraction.

(e) show an understanding of experiments which demonstrate diffraction including the diffraction[] of water waves in a ripple tank with both a wide gap and a narrow gap.

(f) show an understanding of the terms interference and coherence.

(g) show an understanding of experiments which demonstrate two-source interference using water, light and microwaves.

(h) show an understanding of the conditions required if two-source interference fringes are to be observed.

(i) recall and solve problems using the equation λ = ax / D for double-slit interference using light.

(j) recall and solve problems using the formula d sinθ = nλ and describe the use of a diffraction[] grating to determine the wavelength