QUESTIONSHEET 1

(a) Recall of formula:

Speed =  frequency  ΄ wavelength                                                                                                             1                    1

Substitution of figures and correct answer                                                                                                  1                    1

= 1000 ΄ 0.34

= 340 (m/s)

(b) Correct rearrangement or recall of formula

Wavelength = speed/ frequency                                                                                                                1                    1

Correct substitution of figures and correct answer                                                                                      1

= 1300/1000

=1.3 (m)

(c) Understanding that 0.2s is return so 0.1s is time to shoal                                                                             1

Recall of formula        distance =speed ΄ time                                                                                            1

Correct substitution of both speed and time                                                                                                1                    1

=1300 ΄ 0.1

=130m                                                                                                                                                     1                         1

(d) Sounds greater than 20,000 Hz (20kHz) higher frequency                                                                           1

(e) Monitoring babies/ Cleaning small parts                                                                                                      1                    1

TOTAL  / 10

QUESTIONSHEET 2

(a) Any two reasons:

Same speed.

Travel through a vacuum.

Only accept transverse waves if also written of electric and magnetic fields.                                                2                             2

(b) Ultra violet-any value between X-rays (5x 10-10)

and Visible (5 ΄ 10-7)                                                                                                                                1                             1

Infra red-value between 10-4 and 5 ΄ 10-7                                                                                                                                   1                                   1

Do not accept a value close to microwaves.

(c) Gamma rays (a small wavelength means a large frequency)                                                                        1

(d) Recall and rearrangement of the formula to give                                                                                         1

Frequency = Speed/Wavelength

= 6 ΄ 1017 (Hz)                                                                                                                                         1                             1

(e) Recall and rearrangement of the formula to give                                                                                         1

Distance = Speed x time

Conversion of 8½ minutes to seconds = 510seconds                                                                                   1

= 1.53 ΄ 1011 (m)                                                                                                                                      1                             1

Or =153,000,000,000 (m)

TOTAL  / 10

QUESTIONSHEET 3

(a) (i)    distance  =  speed /time

=  340 / 0.7                                                                                                                                       1                                  1

=  485.7 or 486 m / 2                                                                                                                         1                             1

=  243 m                                                                                                                                           1                                  1

(ii)      time is too short to measure accurately                                                                                                  1                    1

difficult to clap and time                                                                                                                       1                           1

(iii)     have second person timing                                                                                                                    1                           1

time several claps and echoes                                                                                                               1                           1

(b) (i)    speed  =  frequency x wavelength                                                                                                      1                         1

=  150 000  ΄  110                                                                                                                             1                             1

= 16 500 000 m/s                                                                                                                              1                             1

(ii) 16 500 000 / 340                                                                                                                                       1                             1

=  48 529 times                                                                                                                                         1

TOTAL  / 12

QUESTIONSHEET 4

(a) (i)    light shining from above                                                                                                                     1                             1

white screen under tank                                                                                                                    1                           1

shadows of ripples appear on screen                                                                                                  1                         1

(ii)    by using a stroboscope or slit disk                                                                                                       1                         1

waves appear to stop                                                                                                                        1                             1

 wave front

 reflected wave

(b) (i)    at right angles to it                                                                                                                             1                             1

 600

(ii)

direction of travel                                                                                                                       1                             1

wave fronts                                                                                                                               1                                  1

(iii)   60o to normal                                                                                                                                    1                                  1

(c) (i)    2 cm                                                                                                                                                1                                       1

(ii)    10 / 4                                                                                                                                               1                                       1

= 2.5 cycles / sec                                                                                                                              1                             1

(iii)   2.5 ΄ 2                                                                                                                                             1                                       1

= 5 cm/s                                                                                                                                           1

TOTAL  / 14

QUESTIONSHEET 5

(a) pitch                                                                                                                                                        1                                       1

(b) (i)    placing fingers on them                                                                                                                      1                           1

(ii)    becomes higher                                                                                                                                 1                             1

(c) using tightening screws at end of neck                                                                                                       1                    1

(d) frequency  =  velocity / wavelength                                                                                                           1                         1

=  330 / 1.3                                                                                                                                              1                                  1

=  254 Hz                                                                                                                                                 1                                  1

(e) they are an octave apart                                                                                                                           1                           1

TOTAL  / 8

QUESTIONSHEET 6

(a) (i)    Resonance                                                                                                                                       1                                  1

(ii)    Two from

Pushing a swing, picking up certain frequencies on radio,

increasing sound volume in wind instrument                                                                                        2                    2

(iii)   Two from

bridges collapsing in wind,  singers shatter glasses,

seats rattling on bus                                                                                                                           2                             2

(b) higher frequency vibrations in conjunction with main one                                                                             1

(c) (i)    Increasing the amplitude of a wave                                                                                                    1                         1

causes its volume to increase                                                                                                             1                           1

(ii)    high pitched notes have high frequency                                                                                               1                    1

and shorter wavelength                                                                                                                     1                             1

(iii)   main frequency has overtones                                                                                                            1                           1

number & strength of overtones determines quality                                                                             1

TOTAL  / 12

QUESTIONSHEET 7

(a) sound pulse released by boat hits fish                                                                                                         1                         1

returns to ship quicker than hitting bottom                                                                                                   1                    1

(b) sound passed through mothers abdomen                                                                                                   1                    1

reflects from baby and shows shape                                                                                                          1                         1

(c) ultrasound causes vibrations                                                                                                                      1                           1

breaks scale from teeth                                                                                                                             1                           1

(d) picture of joint built up                                                                                                                               1                           1

shape of fault shows up                                                                                                                            1                           1

TOTAL  / 8

QUESTIONSHEET 8

(a) (i)    membrane in ear drum                                                                                                                      1                           1

vibrates with same frequency as sound                                                                                               1                    1

(ii)    fluid filled tube                                                                                                                                  1                             1

transmits vibrations to nerve endings                                                                                                  1                         1

(b)help person to balance                                                                                                                               1                             1

by sending reference information to brain                                                                                                   1                    1

(c) sound to ourselves transmitted through bones                                                                                             1

others hear sounds through the air                                                                                                             1                         1

(d) aid picks up vibrations                                                                                                                                                           1

and passes them through skull bones                                                                                                          1                         1

TOTAL  / 9

QUESTIONSHEET 9

(a) Vibrations/ oscillations                                                                                                                              1                           1

Squash/ compress and/ or stretch/rarefact air                                                                                             1                    1        Layers/ Energy travel to ears                                                                                                                                     1

Layers/ Energy travels to ears                                                                                                                   1

(b) Recall of formula

Speed = frequency ΄ wavelength                                                                                                               1                         1

Substitution of figures and rearrangement                                                                                                   1                    1        Wavelength                                                                                                           = speed/frequency

=300/400

=0.75m or

=75cm                                                                                                                                                     1                                       1

(c) (i)    Smaller 1                                                                                                                                                                         1

Same frequency (same no. of peaks)                                                                                                 1                         1

(ii)    Wavelength reduced                                                                                                                         1                             1

Exactly half the wavelength (twice no.of peaks on screen)                                                                  1

(d) Loud sounds damage hearing (destroy hairs in cochlea)                                                                              1

Long period of time ή permanent damage.                                                                                                1                    1

TOTAL  / 12

QUESTIONSHEET 10

(a) (i)    5m                                                                                                                                                   1                                  1

(ii)    100m                                                                                                                                                1                                       1

(b) (i)    Between 3-5cm

(ii)    Displacement in direction of travel of wave (longitudinal).                                                                    1

Squashed up bits and stretched bits

(compressions and rarefactions).                                                                                                        1                         1

(c) Flicked up and down

(so displacement at right angles to travel direction).                                                                                    1

(d) Medium of sound wave is air.                                                                                                                    1                           1

Medium of light wave is electric and magnetic field/ electromagnetic.                                                          1                                  1

Air molecules vibrate back and forth

they collide into other molecules.                                                                                                               1                         1 Energy/ message passed on so that the process repeats                                                                       1

Energy/ message passed on so that the process repeats.                                                                             1

TOTAL  / 9

QUESTIONSHEET 11

(a)Echo                                                                                                                                                        1                                       1

(b) 300m/s                                                                                                                                                     1                                       1

(c) 3 seconds                                                                                                                                                 1                                  1

(d) Use of formula speed =distance/time

to give distance = speed ΄ time.                                                                                                                 1                         1

900m (allow ECF from part 1b).                                                                                                                1                         1

(e) (i)    Sounds with frequency 20,000 Hz/ above human hearing.                                                                    1

(ii)    Ultra sound signal transmitted and reflections/

Bat can calculate the distance to prey from time delay.                                                                       1

Wavelength of reflected signal is increased

if prey is moving away from bat (or vice versa).                                                                                 1

TOTAL  / 9

QUESTIONSHEET 12

(a) A  crust

B  mantle

C  outer core

D  inner core

(all correct  3, 2 correct  2, one correct - 1)                                                                                            3

(b) (i)   Any two from: -

Both need a medium to travel.

Both can be reflected of boundaries.

Both can be refracted at boundaries.

Both have increasing speed with depth/ density.                                                                                  2

(ii)    Any two from:-

P waves are longitudinal (or equivalent)/ S waves are transverse (or equivalent).

P waves are faster.

P waves are more destructive.

P waves can travel through all parts of Earth.                                                                                     2

(c) (i)    P and S waves                                                                                                                                  1                             1

(ii)    P waves only.                                                                                                                                   1                             1        S waves cannot travel through a liquid.                                                                                                    1          The outer core is a liquid.                                                                                                                                               1

S waves cannot travel through a liquid.                                                                                               1

The outer core is liquid.                                                                                                                     1

(d) P waves make building vibrate up and down                                                                                               1                    1

P waves are faster so arrive first.                                                                                                              1                         1

S waves arrive later, shake building from side to side.                                                                                 1

TOTAL  / 14

QUESTIONSHEET 13

(a) A  peak                                                                                                                                                 1                                  1

B  amplitude                                                                                                                                           1                                                                                                                                                                                   1

C  wavelength                                                                                                                                        1                             1

D  trough                                                                                                                                               1                                  1

(b) (i)    hertz                                                                                                                                                1                                       1

(ii)    X  3 Hz                                                                                                                                          1                                  1

Y  1 Hz                                                                                                                                          1                                  1

(iii)   X  5 ΄ 3                                                                                                                                          1                                  1

=  15 cm/s                                                                                                                                        1                                  1

Y  15 cm/s                                                                                                                                     1                                  1

TOTAL  / 10

QUESTIONSHEET 14

(a) (i)    when he saw the smoke of the gun                                                                                                    1                         1

(ii)    light travels much faster than sound                                                                                                    1                         1

the race will have started when he hears the sound                                                                             1

(b) time  =  distance / speed                                                                                                                          1                           1

=  100 / 330                                                                                                                                    1                                  1

=  0.303 s  or 0.3 s                                                                                                                          1                             1

TOTAL  / 6

QUESTIONSHEET 15

(a) speed  =  distance / time                                                                                                                           1                           1

=  750 x 2 / 1                                                                                                                                            1                                  1

=  1500 m/s                                                                                                                                              1                                  1

(b) solids transmit sound better than gases                                                                                                       1                    1

sound transmitted along string                                                                                                                    1                         1

(c) sound needs a material to pass through                                                                                                      1                    1

space is a vacuum                                                                                                                                    1                             1

TOTAL  / 7

QUESTIONSHEET 16

 x

 16

(a) (i)

 x

 160

 150

 120

 140

 110

 130

 100

sensible scales                                                                                                                           1                                  1

correct plotting                                                                                                                           1                             1

correct line drawn                                                                                                                      1                             1

(ii)    127 dB (+/- 1)                                                                                                                                   1                                  1

(iii)   no                                                                                                                                                    1                                  1

(b) (i)    Two from

double glazing, curtains, carpets, plant trees                                                                                        1                    1

(ii)    uneven, non-reflecting                                                                                                                       1                           1

(iii)   ear muffs                                                                                                                                         1

TOTAL  / 9

QUESTIONSHEET 17

(a) (i)    The string                                                                                                                                         1                                  1

(ii)    The drum skin/cover                                                                                                                         1                             1

(iii)   The air inside/ reed                                                                                                                           1                             1

(b) (i)    Ultrasound                                                                                                                                        1                                  1

(ii)    frequency  number of vibrations per sec  hertz                                                                                1

amplitude  maximum disturbance  meters                                                                                        1                    1

wave speed  distance one wave travels per sec  m/s                                                                       1

(c) (i)    Higher                                                                                                                                              1                                       1

(ii)    Louder                                                                                                                                             1                                       1

TOTAL  / 9

QUESTIONSHEET 18

(a) Oscillate / vibrate / move backwards and forwards / side to side.                                                                1                                  1

(b) (i)    String vibrates / is plucked / made to move/ oscillates                                                                          1

(ii)    The string is plucked harder / with more energy.                                                                                 1

(iii)   Tighter strings                                                                                                                                   1                             1

shorten vibrating length (by putting finger along neck)                                                                          1

(c) Sound wave travels back & forth, light goes up & down.                                                                            1

A sound wave has squashed bits (compression)

and stretched bits unlike light                                                                                                                     1                           1

1

TOTAL  / 7

QUESTIONSHEET 19

(a) Wavelength = 4cm                                                                                                                                   1                             1

amplitude = 1cm                                                                                                                                       1                             1

(b) Higher  (twice as high) frequency.                                                                                                             1                         1

Same loudness or energy                                                                                                                          1                           1

(c) Higher frequency (twice as high).                                                                                                              1                         1

Louder or more energy                                                                                                                             1                           1

(d) Similar wave type but:-

Waves not as tall (i.e. smaller amplitude)                                                                                                   1                    1

Wave peaks closer together (shorter wavelength)                                                                                       1

twice the number of waves (wavelength exactly half)                                                                                 1

TOTAL  / 9

QUESTIONSHEET 20

(a) (i)    Unwanted sound.                                                                                                                              1                             1

(ii)    Dangerous/damage to hearing/ health.                                                                                                1                    1

(iii )  Stops sounds travelling straight to houses (travels further)                                                                    1        Deflects/ reflects sound energy away from homes.                                                                                         1

Deflects/ reflects sound energy away from homes.                                                                             1

(b) Changes sound energy to electrical energy.                                                                                                1                    1

(c) Loudness/ amplitude is reduced.                                                                                                                1                         1

Measured wavelength is longer.                                                                                                                1                         1

TOTAL  / 7