High Demand Questions                            QUESTIONSHEET 1

The specific heat capacity of a material is defined as the energy needed to raise the

temperature of 1 kg of the material by 1oC.

 material iron aluminium copper lead concrete specific heat capacity (J/kg/oC) 390 900 490 130 850

The table shows a range of materials and their specific heat capacities.

Hassan wants to design a container in which he can heat water.  He has containers made out of the materials shown in the table.

(a)(i)     Draw a bar graph to display the specific heat capacities for these materials.

[2]

(ii)    If each container has a mass of 1 kg, which material would need the least energy to heat it

through 1oC?                                                                                                                                                                        (1 mark, 1 line)

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(iii)   Hassan decides not to choose a container made out of this material.

Why not?

(1 mark, 1 line)

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(Continued…)

QUESTIONSHEET 1 CONTINUED

(b) (i)    A copper container of mass 500g is used to heat water.  Using the equation:

Energy supplied  =  mass   ´  specific heat capacity   ´   rise in temperature

(J)                       (kg)                (J/kg/oC)                        (oC)

calculate the amount of energy needed to raise its temperature from 20oC to 100oC.

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(ii)   Calculate the amount of energy saved by using the copper container rather than an aluminium container of mass 500g.

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TOTAL  / 9

High Demand Questions                            QUESTIONSHEET 2

Debbie and Asha are using a burning peanut to heat water in a boiling tube.

(a) What can they find out about the peanut by doing this experiment?

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(b) (i)    The equation:

Energy supplied   =  mass  x  specific heat capacity  x  temperature rise

(J)                    (kg)             (J/kg/oC)                      (oC)

can be used to calculate the energy supplied to the water in the boiling tube.

The temperature of the water rose from 20oC to 70oC.  If there were 20g of water in the tube, and the specific heat capacity of water is 4200 J/kg/oC, calculate the energy supplied to the water.

(2 marks, 3 lines)

(ii)   The amount of energy stored in a peanut is much greater than this.  Give two reasons why all the

energy from the peanut did not go into heating the water.

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(c) At the end of the experiment, the outside of the tube was covered in a black deposit.

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(ii)    Where had it come from?                                                                                                                                                (1 mark, 1 line)

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TOTAL  / 7

High Demand Questions                            QUESTIONSHEET 3

The diagram shows a house without any insulation.  The percentage of the energy lost from different parts of the house during the year is shown.

 35%

 door

(a) The total cost of the energy lost during the year is Ł1000.  This represents 35% of the total heating bill for the

house.

(i)    Calculate the cost of heating the house for one year.

(2)

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(ii)    Calculate the cost of the energy wasted through the floor.

(2)

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(iii)   Suggest one way of reducing the amount of heat energy escaping through the door other than draught proofing.

(1)

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(b)The table shows some types of methods used to conserve energy, their installation costs and the

amount of money that this method would save in a year. Assume each method reduces heat loss by 80%

 Place of installation Method of insulation Purchase cost (Ł) Cost of energy wasted per year (Ł) Cost of energy saved per year (Ł) Roof Rock-wool or Fibre-glass in loft 250 200 Walls Cavity wall filling 1000 350 Windows Double glazing 3500 150 120 Doors Draught-proofing 5 150

(i)      Complete the table by calculating the cost of the energy saved in one year for each method of insulation (The double-glazing has been done for you).

[3]

(Continued...)

QUESTIONSHEET 3 CONTINUED

(ii)   Calculate the length of time needed to payback the initial purchase cost of Double-glazing. (Assume the cost of the energy does not change).

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(iii)   Which type of insulation would you install first? Explain why.

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TOTAL  / 12

High Demand Questions                           QUESTIONSHEET 4

(a) Architects calculate heat loss from houses using a factor called the U-value.

They use the following formula:

Heat loss per second  =      area     x     temperature difference     x     U-value

(W)                                 (m2)                            (oC)

What are the units of the U-value?

(1)

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(b)Below are some U-values for different parts of the house.

 Part of house U-value Single-glazed window 5.5 Double-glazed window 3.0 Roof 2.0 Insulated roof 0.5 Cavity wall 1.5 Insulated cavity wall 0.5

An insulated roof measures 10 m by 8 m.  The temperature inside is 20oC and outside is 2oC.

Calculate the heat loss per second through the roof.

(3)

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TOTAL  / 4

High Demand Questions                            QUESTIONSHEET 5

Some people have solar panels to heat their water mounted on their roofs.

The diagram below shows the set up of a solar panel

 cold water in

(a) Explain why the surface is a dull black.

(2)

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(b) Why is it covered with glass?

(1)

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(c) (i)    Why are the pipes arranged in a zig-zag pattern?

(2)

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(ii)   Why should the pipe linking the solar panel to the hot water tank be as short as possible?

(1)

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(d) (i)    What makes the water move through the pipes?

(1)

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(ii)    Why is the storage tank usually fitted higher than the panel?

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(e) The house would normally have an alternative method of heating the water. Explain why.                                                                                                                                                                                                              (1)

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TOTAL  / 9

High Demand Questions                            QUESTIONSHEET 6

(a) Explain why birds fluff up their feathers in cold weather.

(2)

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(b) Tramps will often wrap themselves in newspaper at night.

Why does this help them to keep warm?

(1)

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(c) Design an experiment or series of experiments to compare the insulating properties of feathers and of newspaper.  Mention the controls you would use to ensure that the experiments were fair.

(8)

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TOTAL  / 11

High Demand Questions                            QUESTIONSHEET 7

The energy needed to change the temperature of a substance depends on the mass of the substance, the temperature and the specific heat capacity of the substance.

(a) Calculate the amount of energy needed to change the temperature of:

(i)    500 g of water by 5oC   (specific heat capacity of water is 4200 J/kg oC)

(3)

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(ii)    100 g of aluminium from 100C to 300C  (specific heat capacity of aluminium is 880 J/kg oC)

(3)

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(b)A 4 kg lump of iron is given 20 kJ of energy.  It rises in temperature by 10oC.

Calculate the specific heat capacity of iron.

(3)

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(c) At the seaside on a hot day, the sand feels warm, but the sea is cold. Explain this.

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TOTAL  / 11

High Demand Questions                            QUESTIONSHEET 8

(a) A kettle has a power rating of 3 kW. 1.5 kg of water at 5oC are put in the kettle.

Assuming no heat is lost:

(i)    how much energy is needed to boil the kettle?

(3)

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(ii)  how long will the kettle take to boil?

(3)

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(the specific heat capacity for water is 4200 J/kg 0C)

(b) How long would the kettle take to boil if 2 kg of ice at 0oC was put in it?

(latent heat of fusion of ice is 334 000 J/kg)

(4)

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TOTAL  / 10

Medium Demand Questions                       QUESTIONSHEET 9

(a) All metals expand when they are heated, but by differing amounts.

Aluminium expands more than copper, which expands more than iron.

Draw labelled diagrams to show what you would expect to see when the following bimetal strips are heated

to 300 oC:

(i)    Copper and iron

(2)

[2]

(ii)    copper and aluminium

(2)

[2]

(b)(i)    Explain how bimetallic strips can be used to make a thermostat.

(4)

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TOTAL  / 8

Medium Demand Questions                      QUESTIONSHEET 10

(a) Explain how the following methods of insulating a house help to reduce heat loss.

(i)    double glazing.

(2)

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(ii)    lining the loft with fibre glass.

(2)

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(iii)   the use of thick carpets.

(2)

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(b) Air is a very poor conductor of heat. Why is air replaced by foam in cavity wall insulation?

(2)

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(c) Explain why a string vest keeps a person warm, even though it is only a collection of holes.

(2)

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TOTAL  / 10

Medium Demand Questions                      QUESTIONSHEET 11

(a) The linear expansivity of a substance is the amount by which one metre length will increase for every one degree Celsius rise in temperature. Engineers can use this to work out how much their materials will expand over the range of temperature in which they are to be used.

(i)    Why is it important to know this when building a bridge?

(2)

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(ii)    The linear expansivity of steel is 0.000 012 m per oC.

What will be the length of a 500 m steel bridge if the temperature rises by 50 oC?

(3)

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(b) The linear expansivity of copper is 0.000 02 m per oC and that of aluminium 0.000 03 m per oC.

Which of the will expand most, 50 m of copper heated by 40 oC or 50 m of aluminium heated by 30 oC?

(4)

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(c) How was the idea of expansivity used in fitting metal tyres to wooden cart wheels?

(2)

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TOTAL  / 11

Medium Demand Questions                      QUESTIONSHEET 12

(a)Carol is testing 2 cups to see which has the best insulating properties.  The table shows the data

when the same volume of hot water is placed in each cup, and the temperature monitored for 10 minutes.

 time (min) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 paper cup 80 66 57 53 49 47 45 43 42 41 40 polystyrene cup 80 74 68 65 63 61 60 59 58 57 56

(i)    Plot graphs of temperature and time for each cup on the same axes.                                                 [5]

(Continued...)

QUESTIONSHEET 12 CONTINUED

(ii)    How long did each cup take to cool from 80oC to 70oC?

paper cup:

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polystyrene cup:                                                                                                                                                                           (2 marks, 2 lines)

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(iii) Which cup was the best insulator?                                                                                                                                 (1 mark, 1 line)

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(b) Carol put lids on the containers and repeated the experiment.

(i)    What effect would you expect to see on her results?                                                                                           (1 mark, 1 line)

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TOTAL  / 11

Medium Demand Questions                      QUESTIONSHEET 13

Mark sets up an experiment to investigate the heat loss from containers covered with different materials.

The graph shows cooling curves for 3 containers.

A is a pyrex beaker

B is a pyrex beaker covered with aluminium foil

C is a pyrex beaker painted black.

Each beaker has a lid.

(a) (i)    After what time is the temperature 80oC for each beaker?

A:  .............................................................................................................................................. [1]

B:   ............................................................................................................................................. [1]

C:  ............................................................................................................................................. [1]

(ii)    What is the temperature of each beaker after 10 minutes?

A:  ............................................................................................................................................. [1]

B:  ............................................................................................................................................. [1]

C: .............................................................................................................................................. [1]

(Continued...)

QUESTIONSHEET 13 CONTINUED

(b)(i)    Which beaker is the best emitter of heat?                                                                                                                (1 mark, 1 line)

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(ii)    How is the heat being lost?                                                                                                                                            (1 mark, 1 line)

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(iii)   Name two other ways that heat can be lost when a body is hotter than its surroundings.                                                                                                                                                                                                                (2 marks, 2 lines)

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TOTAL  / 10

Medium Demand Questions                      QUESTIONSHEET 14

The diagram shows the important parts of a hot water system in a home.

 Hot tap

(a) (i)    Name the main process whereby heat is transferred through the sides of the hot water tank to

the surroundings.

(1)

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(ii)   Name the main heat transfer process whereby heat is transferred from the flames to the bottom of the boiler.

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(b) State why an expansion pipe is needed.

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For the following question use the theory of the arrangement of particles in solids, liquids and gasses to help you to answer the question.

(c) Explain the difference between the conduction and convection in solids liquids and gases.

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TOTAL  / 8

Medium Demand Questions                      QUESTIONSHEET 15

Explain each of the following:

(a) a chimney and fire help to ventilate a room.

(2)

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(b) a glider is able to stay in the air.

(2)

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(c) it is best to crawl along the floor in a smoke-filled room.

(2)

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(d) people wear light coloured clothing in Summer.

(2)

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(e) frost is more likely to form on a clear night than on one which is cloudy.

(2)

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TOTAL  / 10

Medium Demand Questions                      QUESTIONSHEET 16

(a) Explain how perspiration helps to keep you cool.

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(b) When walking on a mountain in wet weather a person’s clothing became soaked.

Explain why this could be dangerous to the person’s  health.

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(c) For each of the list of conditions needed to dry clothes on a washing line as quickly as possible,

explain the science behind them.

(i)    the air should be dry

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(ii)    the day should be windy

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(iii)   large items such as sheets should be well spread out.

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TOTAL  / 12

Low Demand Questions                           QUESTIONSHEET 17

Mary has just received her gas bill for the winter quarter.  She is amazed at how high it is.

Her friend Rita suggests that she should insulate her house.

(a) Why would insulation reduce her gas bill?                                                                                                                            (1 mark, 1 line)

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 where heat lost walls roof windows floors % loss 40 35 15 10

(b) The table shows the percentage heat loss through parts of a house.

(i)    Draw a bar graph  to display the results.

(2 marks, 0 lines)

[2]

(ii)    Where is most energy lost from the house?

(1 mark, 1 line)

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(iii)   Name the types of insulation she should consider for each area:

walls:.......................................................................................................................................... [1]

roof:........................................................................................................................................... [1]

windows:.................................................................................................................................... [1]

floor: .......................................................................................................................................... [1]                                                                                                                                                                                     .........................................................................................................................................................                              (4 marks, 4 lines)

TOTAL  / 8

Low Demand Questions                           QUESTIONSHEET 18

The diagram shows a vacuum flask.  It is designed to keep heat from entering or leaving the flask.

The table below shows a design feature to help to stop heat being transferred and a type of heat transfer.

 Design feature Heat transfer process Silvered inner walls Conduction Plastic stopper Convection Vacuum within inner cavity Radiation

(a) Link the design feature to the type of heat transfer that it is designed to reduce.

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(Continued...)

QUESTIONSHEET 18 CONTINUED

Below is a paragraph of text describing heat transfer.  Insert a keyword into the blank spaces.  The keywords are:-

The keywords may be used once, more than once or not at all.

(b) The main type of heat energy transfer in solids is ________________.

The main type of energy transfer process in liquids is __________________ .

The main type of heat energy transfer process in gases is ____________________.

The Sun’s heat rays pass through outer space towards Earth by a process called _______________.

[4]

(c) The diagram shows a flask that has a crack in one of the inner walls.

Explain why the flask did not work as efficiently.

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TOTAL  / 8

Low Demand Questions                           QUESTIONSHEET 19

0 oC     20 oC     37 oC     50 oC     100 oC     176 oC     1530 oC

(a) From the list of temperatures given above, select the most likely value for each of the following:

(i)    the boiling point of pure water at normal pressure                       ...................................................... [1]                    (1)

(ii)   the body temperature of a healthy person                                    .................................................... [1]                           (1)

(iii)  the melting point of iron                                                               ................................................... [1]                                                                                                                                                                                       (1)

(iv)  normal room temperature                                                             .................................................. [1]                                                                                                                                                                                       (1)

(v)   the melting point of pure ice                                                        .................................................... [1]                                                                                                                                                                                       (1)

(b) State two ways in which a clinical thermometer differs from a laboratory thermometer.

(2)

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(c) What are the two most common liquids used in a laboratory thermometer?

(2)

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TOTAL  / 9

Low Demand Questions                           QUESTIONSHEET 20

Complete the following sentences.

______________________  currents form when liquids are heated.

The hot liquid _____________ and the cold liquid ________________.

Energy travels through space by ______________, which can be reflected by _________________.

Shiny surfaces are _______________ and dull black ones are _________________.

The unit of energy is the _______________.

Energy travels through the bottom of a saucepan by _________________.

Metals are good _______________ whereas plastics are good ______________.                                                    (11)

TOTAL  / 11