Electric Current and Material Properties of Solids Glossary 

current which reverses its direction of flow over time - usually viewed as a "wave" trace on an oscilloscope
the unit of electric current - when a charge of one coulomb flows for one second
A in  r = R A / L
The greatest stress a material can bear is called the ______ _________
a material that will usually fracture with very little force applied can be described as being _____
the quantity of electricity - expressed as a positivity or a negativity - can be measured in coulombs
the unit of charge
the rate of flow of charge
mass per unit volume
the force beyond which a material should not be subjected if it is to obey Hookes Law
_____ _________ ________ = area under the Hooke's law portion of a Force / extension graph
the energy provided by a power source per unit charge - it is also the pd of the power source when no current flows
emf is related to the ______ provided per unit charge within the power supply
____ _______ in stretching a material = 1/2 force x extension
I / V characteristic shows a symmetrical curve for this non-ohmic conductor
vibrations in a time interval - also it is f in f  =  1  /  T
the number of vibrations per second
when a forces is applied to a material & the force is proportional to extension - then it obeys _____ _____
the resistance inherent in any power source in which energy is dissipated
to calculate the sum of parallel resistors we need to _____ each resistance before we add them and then _____ the result
the unit of energy
the laws which describe how current and voltage are distributed in series and parallel circuits
L in  r = R A / L
the unit of resistance = 1 volt per ampere
the unit of resistivity
a conductor that obeys ohm's law - in which V is proportional to I at constant temperature
this law applies when current is proportional to voltage at constant temperature
a device used to display a.c. waveforms on a cathode ray tube
a method of connecting components in which each component has its own branch before and after the component - they share the same p.d.
the maximum voltage of  a.c. measured from the central position (equivalent to amplitude)
a material that retains some of its extension after the force has been removed can be described as being ________
the work done per unit charge - usually measured across a component in a circuit
a network of (usually) two resistors connected in series that allows the voltage to be shared across each resistance
the rate of energy dissipation
the ratio of potential difference to current
the resistance of a material taking into account its length and its cross sectional area
the rms value of current or voltage in ac circuits - the value that gives the effective power output when compared to its d.c. equivalent
a conductor that conducts electricity in one direction only
a method of connecting components in which there are no branches - all the electricity flows though each component with the same current
the shape of an a.c. wave form that follows this pattern x = sin(x)
ohm's law only applies at constant ______
______  ______ = extension / original length
_____  ______ = force acting on the cross sectional area of a material under tension
a device which is designed to have a resistance that depends upon its temperature: an inc. T leads to a dec. R
the control on a CRO that allows us to vary the time taken for the moving electron beam to move through one horizontal division
the time between subsequent peaks (or troughs) in an a.c. wave form - also the shortest time interval between two parts of a wave form that have the same phase difference
the unit of emf and potential difference = one joule dissipated per coulomb of charge
the control on a CRO that allows us to vary the voltage required to move the beam through on vertical division
_____ ______ = force x distance moved - it is also related to the energy dissipated in components having resistance
tensile stress / tensile strain

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