Sight and wave phenomena. 

The eye and sight. 
A.1.1 
Describe the basic structure of the human eye. 
A.1.2 
State and explain the process of depth of vision and accommodation. 
A.1.3 
State that the retina contains rods and cones, and describe the variation
in density across the surface of the retina. 
A.1.4 
Describe the function of the rods and of the cones in photopic and
scotopic vision. 
A.1.5 
Describe colour mixing of light by addition and subtraction. 
A.1.6 
Discuss the effect of light and dark, and colour on the perception of
objects. 

Standing (stationary) waves. 
A.2.1 
Describe the nautre of standing (stationary) waves. 
A.2.2 
Explain the formation of onedimensional standing waves. 
A.2.3 
Discuss the modes of vibration of strings and air in open and in closed
pipes. 
A.2.4 
Compare standing waves and travelling waves. 
A.2.5 
Solve problems involving standing waves. 

Doppler^{[]} effect. 
A.3.1 
Describe what is meant by the Doppler^{[]} effect. 
A.3.2 
Explain the Doppler^{[]} effect by reference to wavefront diagrams for
movingdetector and movingsource situations. 
A.3.3 
Apply the Doppler^{[]} effect equations for sound. 
A.3.4 
Solve problems on the Doppler^{[]} effect for sound. 
A.3.5 
Solve problems on the Doppler^{[]} effect for electromagnetic waves using the
approximation Δf = fv/c. 
A.3.6 
Outline an example in which the Doppler^{[]} effect is used to measure speed. 

Diffraction. 

Diffraction^{[]} at a single slit. 
A.4.1 
Sketch the variation with angle of diffraction^{[]} of the relative intensity
of light diffracted at a single slit. 
A.4.2 
Derive the formula θ = λ/b for the position of the first minimum of the
diffraction^{[]} pattern produced at a single slit. 
A.4.3 
Solve problems involving singleslit diffraction. 

Resolution^{[]} 
A.5.1 
Sketch the variation with angle of diffraction^{[]} of the relative intensity
of light emitted by two point sources that has been diffracted at a single
slit. 
A.5.2 
State the Rayleigh criterion for images of two sources to be just
resolved. 
A.5.3 
Describe the significance of resolution^{[]} in the development of devices such
as CDs and DVDs, the electron microscope and radio telescopes. 
A.5.4 
Solve problems involving resolution. 

Polarization. 
A.6.1 
Describe what is meant by polarized light. 
A.6.2 
Describe polarization by reflection^{[]}. 
A.6.3 
State and apply Brewsters law. 
A.6.4 
Explain the terms polarizer and analyser. 
A.6.5 
Calculate the intensity of a transmitted beam of polarized light using
Malus law. 
A.6.6 
Describe what is meant by an optically active substance. 
A.6.7 
Describe the use of polarization in the determination of the concentration
of certain solutions. 
A.6.8 
Outline qualitatively how polarization may be used in stress analysis. 
A.6.9 
Outline qualitatively the action of liquidcrystal displays (LCDs). 
A.6.10 
Solve problems involving the polarization of light. 

Quantum physics and nuclear physics. 

Quantum physics. 

The quantum nature of radiation. 
B.1.1 
Describe the photoelectric effect^{[]}. 
B.1.2 
Describe the concept of the photon and use it to explain the photoelectric
effect. 
B.1.3 
Describe and explain an experiment to test the Einstein model. 
B.1.4 
Solve problems involving the photoelectric effect^{[]}. 

The wave nature of matter. 
B.1.5 
Describe the de Broglie^{[]} hypothesis and the concept of matter waves. 
B.1.6 
Outline an experiment to verify the de Broglie^{[]} hypothesis. 
B.1.7 
Solve problems involving matter waves. 

Atomic spectra and atomic energy states. 
B.1.8 
Outline a laboratory procedure for producing and observing atomic spectra. 
B.1.9 
Explain how atomic spectra provide evidence for the quantization of energy
in atoms. 
B.1.10 
Calculate wavelengths of spectral lines from energy level differences and
vice versa. 
B.1.11 
Explain the origin of atomic energy levels in terms of the "electron in a
box" model. 
B.1.12 
Outline the Schrodinger model of the hydrogen atom. 
B.1.13 
Outline the Heisenberg uncertainty principle with regard to
positionmomentum and timeenergy. 

Nuclear physics 
B.2.1 
Explain how the radii of nuclei may be estimated from charged particle
scattering experiments. 
B.2.2 
Describe how the masses of nuclei may be determined using a Bainbridge
mass spectrometer. 
B.2.3 
Describe one piece of evidence fo the existence of nuclear energy levels. 

Radioactive decay. 
B.2.4 
Describe β^{+}
decay, including the existence of the neutrino. 
B.2.5 
State the radioactive decay law as an exponential function and define the
decay constant. 
B.2.6 
Derive the relationship between decay constant^{[]} and halflife. 
B.2.7 
Outline methods for measuring the halflife of an isotope. 
B.2.8 
Solve problems involving radioactive halflife. 

Digital technology. 

Analogue and digital signals. 
C.1.1 
Solve problems involving the conversion between binary^{[]} numbers and decimal
numbers. 
C.1.2 
Describe different means of storage of information in both analogue and
digital forms. 
C.1.3 
Explain how interference of light is used to recover information stored on
a CD. 
C.1.4 
Calculate an appropriate depth for a pit from the wavelength of the laser
light. 
C.1.5 
Solve problems on CDs and DVDs related to data storage capacity. 
C.1.6 
Discuss the advantage of the storage of information in digital rather than
analogue form. 
C.1.7 
Discuss the implications for society of everincreasing capability of data
storage. 

Data capture; digital imaging using chargecoupled devices (CCDs). 
C.2.1 
Define capacitance. 
C.2.2 
Describe the structure of a chargecouple device (CCD). 
C.2.3 
Explain how incident light causes charge to build up within a pixel. 
C.2.4 
Outline how the image on a CCD^{[]} is digitized. 
C.2.5 
Define quantum efficiency of a pixel. 
C.2.6 
Define magnification. 
C.2.7 
State that two points on an object may be just resolved on a CCD^{[]} if the
images of the points are at least two pixels apart. 
C.2.8 
Discuss the effects of quantum efficiency, magnification and resolution^{[]} on
the quality of the processed image. 
C.2.9 
Describe a range of practical uses of a CCD, and list some advantages
compared with the use of film. 
C.2.10 
Outline how the image stored in a CCD^{[]} is retrieved. 
C.2.11 
Solve problems involving the use of CCDs. 

Electronics. 
C.3.1 
State the properties of an ideal operation amplifier (opamp). 
C.3.2 
Draw circuit diagrams for both inverting and noninverting amplifiers
(with a single input) incorporating operational amplifiers. 
C.3.3 
Derive an expression for the gain of an inverting amplifier and for a
noninverting amplifier. 
C.3.4 
Describe the use of an operational amplifier circuit as a comparitor. 
C.3.5 
Describe the use of a Schmitt trigger for the reshaping of digital pulses. 
C.3.6 
Solve problems involving circuits^{[]} incorporating operational amplifiers. 

The mobile phone system. 
C.4.1 
State that any area is divided into a number of cells (each with its own
base station) to which is allocated a range of frequencies. 
C.4.2 
Describe the role of the cellular exchange and the public switched
telephone network (PSTN) in communications using mobile phones. 
C.4.3 
Discuss the use of mobile phones in multimedia communication. 
C.4.4 
Discuss the moral, ethical, economic, environmental and international
issues arising from the use of mobile phones. 

Relativity and particle physics. 

Introduction to relativity. 

Frames of reference. 
D.1.1 
Describe what is meant by a frame of reference. 
D.1.2 
Describe what is meant by a Galilean transformation. 
D.1.3 
Solve problems involving relative velocities using the Galilean
transformation equations. 

Concepts and postulates of special relativity. 
D.2.1 
Describe what is meant by an inertial frame of reference. 
D.2.2 
State the two postulates of the special theory of relativity. 
D.2.3 
Discuss the concept of simultaneity. 

Relativistic kinematics. 

Time dilation. 
D.3.1 
Describe the concept of a light clock. 
D.3.2 
Define proper time interval. 
D.3.3 
Derive the time dilation formula. 
D.3.4 
Sketch and annotate a graph showing the variation with relative velocity^{[]}
of the Lorentz factor. 
D.3.5 
Solve problems involving time dilation. 

Length contraction. 
D.3.6 
Define proper length. 
D.3.7 
Describe the phenomenon of length contraction. 
D.3.8 
Solve problems involving length contraction. 

Particles and interactions. 

Description and classification of particles. 
D.4.1 
State what is meant by an elementary particle. 
D.4.2 
Identify elementary particles. 
D.4.3 
Describe particles in terms of mass and various quantum numbers. 
D.4.4 
Classify particles according to spin. 
D.4.5 
State what is meant by an antiparticle. 
D.4.6 
State the Pauli exclusion principle. 

Fundamental interactions^{[]}. 
D.4.7 
List the fundamental interactions. 
D.4.8 
Describe the fundamental interactions^{[]} in terms of exchange particles^{[]}. 
D.4.9 
Discuss the uncertainty principle for time and energy in the context of
particle creation. 

Feynman diagrams. 
D.4.10 
Describe what is meant by a Feynman diagram. 
D.4.11 
Discuss how a Feynman diagram may be used to calculate probabilities for
fundamental processes. 
D.4.12 
Describe what is meant by virtual particles. 
D.4.13 
Apply the formula for the range R for interactions involving the exchange
of a particle. 
D.4.14 
Describe pair annihilaiton and pair production through Feynman diagrams. 
D.4.15 
Predict particle processes using Feynman diagrams. 

Quarks. 

D.5.1 
List the six types of quark. 
D.5.2 
State the content, in terms of quarks and antiquarks, of hadrons (that is,
baryons and mesons). 
D.5.3 
State the quark content of the proton and the neutron. 
D.5.4 
Define baryon number and apply the law of conservation of baryon number. 
D.5.5 
Deduce the spin structure of hadrons (that is, baryons and mesons). 
D.5.6 
Explain the need for colour in forming bound states of quarks. 
D.5.7 
State the colour of quarks and gluons. 
D.5.8 
Outline the concept of strangeness. 
D.5.9 
Discuss quark confinement. 
D.5.10 
Discuss the interaction that binds nucleons in terms of the colour force
between quarks. 