Physics and physical measurement. The realm of physics 1.1.1 State and compare quantities to the nearest order of magnitude. 1.1.2 State the ranges of mangnitude of distances, masses and times that occur in the universe, from smallest to greatest. 1.1.3 State ratios of quantities as differences of orders of magnitude. 1.1.4 Estimate approximate values of everyday quantities to one or two significant figures and/or to the nearest order of magnitude. Measurement and uncertainties. The SI system of fundamental and derived units[]. 1.2.1 State the fundamental units[] in the SI system. 1.2.2 Distinguish between fundamental and derived units[] and give examples of derived units[]. 1.2.3 Convert between different units[] of quantities. 1.2.4 State units[] in the accepted SI format. 1.2.5 State values in scientific notation and in multiples of units[] with appropriate prefixes. Uncertainty[] and error in measurement. 1.2.6 Describe and give examples of random and systematic errors. 1.2.7 Distinguish between precision and accuracy. 1.2.8 Explain how the effects of random errors may be reduced. 1.2.9 Calculate quantities and results of calculations to the appropriate number of significant figures. Uncertainties in calculated results. 1.2.10 State uncertainties as absolute, fractional and percentage uncertainties. 1.2.11 Determine the uncertainties in results. Uncertainties in graphs. 1.2.12 Identify uncertainties as error bars in graphs. 1.2.13 State random uncertainty[] as an uncertainty[] range (±) and represent it graphically as an "error bar". 1.2.14 Determine the uncertainties in the gradient and intercepts of a straight-line graph. Vectors[] and scalars. 1.3.1 Distinguish between vector and scalar quantities and give examples of each. 1.3.2 Determine the sum or difference of two vectors[] by a graphical method. 1.3.3 Resolve vectors[] into perpendicular components along chosen axes.