Oscillations and waves. Kinematics of simple harmonic motion (SHM). 4.1.1 Describe examples of oscillations. 4.1.2 Define the terms displacement, amplitude, frequency, period and phase difference. 4.1.3 Define simple harmonic motion (SHM) and state the defining equation as a = -(ω2)x. 4.1.4 Solve problems using the defining equation for SHM. 4.1.5 Apply the equations v = v0sinωt, v = v0cosωt, v = ±ω(x0˛ - x˛)-˝ , x = x0cosωt and x = x0sinωt as solutions to the defining equation for SHM. 4.1.6 Solve problems, both graphically and by calculation, for acceleration[], velocity and displacement during SHM. Energy changes during simple harmonic motion. 4.2.1 Describe the interchange between kinetic energy and potential energy[] during SHM. 4.2.2 Apply the expressions EK = ˝ mω˛(x0˛ - x˛) for the kinetic energy of a particle undergoing SHM, ET = ˝ mω˛x0˛ for the total energy[] and EP = ˝ mω˛x˛ for the potential energy. 4.2.3 Solve problems, both graphically and by calculation, involving energy changes during SHM. Forced oscillations and resonance. 4.3.1 State what is meant by damping. 4.3.2 Describe examples of damped oscillations. 4.3.3 State what is meant by natural frequency of vibration and forced oscillations. 4.3.4 Describe graphically the variation with forced frequency of the amplitude of vibration of an object close to its natural frequency of vibration. 4.3.5 State what is meant by resonance. 4.3.6 Describe examples of resonance[] where the effect is useful and where it should be avoided. Wave characteristics. 4.4.1 Describe a wave pulse and a continuous progressive (travelling) wave. 4.4.2 State that progressive (travelling) waves transfer energy. 4.4.3 Describe and give examples of transverse and longitudinal waves. 4.4.4 Describe waves in two dimensions, including the concepts of wavefronts and of rays. 4.4.5 Describe the terms crest, trough, compression and rarefaction. 4.4.6 Define the terms displacement, amplitude, frequency, period, wave speed and intensity. 4.4.7 Draw and explain displacement-time and displacement-position graphs for transverse and longitudinal waves. 4.4.8 Derive and aplly the relationship between wave speed, wavelength and frequency. 4.4.9 State that all electromagnetic waves travel with the same speed in free space, and recall the orders of magnitude of the wavelengths of the principle radiations in the electromagnetic spectrum. Wave properties. 4.5.1 Describe the reflection[] and transmission of waves at a boundary between two media. 4.5.2 State and apply Snells law. 4.5.3 Explain and discuss qualitatively the diffraction[] of waves at apertures and obstacles. 4.5.4 Describe exampels of diffraction. 4.5.5 State the principle of superposition and explain what is meant by constructive interference and destructive interference. 4.5.6 State and apply the conditions for constructive and for destructive interference in terms of path difference and phase difference. 4.5.7 Apply the principle of superposition to determine the resultant of two waves.