Energy, power[] and climate change.
Energy degredation and power[] generation.
8.1.1 State that thermal energy may be completely converted to work in a single process, but that continuous conversion of this energy into work requires a cyclical process and the transfer of some energy from the system.
8.1.2 Explain what is meant by degraded energy.
8.1.3 Construct and analyse energy flow diagrams (Sankey diagrams) and identify where the energy is degraded.
8.1.4 Outline the principal mechanisms involved in the production of electrical power.
World energy sources.
8.2.1 Identify different world energy sources.
8.2.2 Outline and distinguish between renewable and non-renewable energy sources.
8.2.3 Define the energy density of a fuel.
8.2.4 Discuss how choice of fuel is influenced by its energy density.
8.2.5 State the relative proportions of world use of the different energy sources that are available.
8.2.6 Discuss the relative advantages and disadvantages of various energy sources.
Fossil fuel power[] production.
8.3.1 Outline the historical and geographical reasons for the widespread use of fossil fuels.
8.3.2 Discuss the energy density of fossil fuels with respect to the demand of power[] stations.
8.3.3 Discuss the relative advantages and disadvantages associated with the transportation and storage of fossil fuels.
8.3.4 State the overall efficiency[] of power[] stations fuelled by different fossil fuels.
8.3.5 Describe the environmental problems associated with the recovery of fossil fuels and their use in power[] stations.
Non-fossil fuel power[] production.
Nuclear power.
8.4.1 Describe how neutrons produced in a fission[] reaction may be used to initiate further fission[] reactions (chain reactions).
8.4.2 Distinguish between controlled nuclear fission[] (power production) and uncontrolled nuclear fission[] (nuclear weapons).
8.4.3 Describe what is meant by fuel enrichment.
8.4.4 Describe the main energy transformations that take place in a nuclear power[] station.
8.4.5 Discuss the role of the moderator and the control rods in the production of controlled fission[] in a thermal fission[] reactor.
8.4.6 Discuss the role of the heat exchanger in a fission[] reactor.
8.4.7 Describe how neutron capture by a nucleus of uranium-238 results in the production of a nucleus of plutonium-239.
8.4.8 Describe the importance of plutonium-239 as a nuclear fuel.
8.4.9 Discuss safety issues and risks associated with the production of nuclear power.
8.4.10 Outline the problems associated with producing nuclear power using nuclear fusion.
8.4.11 Solve problems on the production of nuclear power.
Solar power.
8.4.12 Distinguish between a photovoltaic cell and a solar heating panel.
8.4.13 Outline reasons for seasonal and regional variations in the solar power incident per unit area of the Earths surface.
8.4.14 Solve problems involving specific applications of photovoltaic cells and solar heating panels.
Hydroelectric power.
8.4.15 Distinguish between different hydroelectric schemes.
8.4.16 Describe the main energy transformations that take place in hydroelectric schemes.
8.4.17 Solve problems involving hydroelectric schemes.
Wind power[].
8.4.18 Outline the basic features of a wind generator[].
8.4.19 Determine the power[] that may be delivered by a wind generator, assuming that the wind kinetic energy[] is completely converted into mechanical kinetic energy, and explain why this is possible.
8.4.20 Solve problems involving wind power[].
Wave power[].
8.4.21 Describe the principle of operation of an oscillating water column (OWC) ocean-wave energy converter.
8.4.22 Determine the power[] per unil length of a wavefront, assuming a rectangular profile for the wave.
8.4.23 Solve problems involving wave power[].
Greenhouse effect[].
Solar radiation[].
8.5.1 Calculate the intensity of the Suns radiation incident on a planet.
8.5.2 Define albedo.
8.5.3 State factors that determine a planets albedo.
The greenhouse effect.
8.5.4 Describe the greenhouse effect.
8.5.5 Identify the main greenhouse gases and their sources.
8.5.6 Explain the molecular mechanisms by which greenhouse gases absorb infrared radiation.
8.5.7 Analyse absorption graphs to compare the relative effects of different greenhouse gases.
8.5.8 Outline the nature of black-body radiation.
8.5.9 Draw and annotate a graph of the emission spectra of black bodies at different temperatures.
8.5.10 State the Stefan-Boltzmann law and apply it to compare emission rates from different surfaces.
8.5.11 Apply the concept of emissivity to compare the emission rates from the different surfaces.
8.5.12 Define surface heat capacity CS.
8.5.13 Solve problems on the greenhouse effect[] and the heating of planets using a simple energy balance climate model.
Global warming[].
8.6.1 Describe some possible models of global warming.
8.6.2 State what is meant by the enhanced greenhouse effect.
8.6.3 Identify the increased combustion of fossil fuels as the likely major cause of the enhanced greenhouse effect.
8.6.4 Describe the evidence that links global warming[] to increased levels of greenhouse gases.
8.6.5 Outline some of the mechanisms that may increase the rate of global warming.
8.6.6 Define coefficient of volume expansion.
8.6.7 State that one possible effect of the enhanced greenhouse effect[] is a rise in mean sea-level.
8.6.8 Outline possible reasons for a predicted rise in mean sea-level.
8.6.9 Identify climate change as an outcome of the enhanced greenhouse effect.
8.6.10 Solve problems related to the enhanced greenhouse effect.
8.6.11 Identify some possible solutions to reduce the enhanced greenhouse effect.
8.6.12 Discuss international efforts to reduce the enhanced greenhouse effect.