Atomic and nuclear physics.
The atom.
Atomic structure.
7.1.1 Describe a model of the atom that features a small nucleus surrounded by electrons.
7.1.2 Outline the evidence that supports a nuclear model of the atom.
7.1.3 Outline one limitation of the simple model of the nuclear atom.
7.1.4 Outline evidence for the existence of atomic energy levels.
Nuclear structure.
7.1.5 Explain the terms nuclide, isotope and nucleon.
7.1.6 Define nucleon number A, proton number Z and neutron number N - interactive
7.1.7 Describe the interactions in a nucleus.
Radioactive decay.
7.2.1 Describe the phenomenon of natural radioactive decay.
7.2.2 Describe the properties of alpha (α) and beta (β) particles and gamma (γ) radiation.
7.2.3 Describe the ionizing properties of alpha (α) and beta (β) particles and gamma (γ) radiation.
7.2.4 Outline the biological effects of ionizing radiation.
7.2.5 Explain why some nuclei are stable while others are unstable.
7.2.6 State that radioactive decay is a random and spontaneous process and that the rate of decay decreases exponentially with time.
7.2.7 Define the term radioactive half-life.
7.2.8 Determine the half-life of a nuclide from a decay curve.
7.2.9 Solve radioactive decay problems involving integral numbers of half-lives.
Nuclear reactions, fission[] and fusion.
Nuclear reactions.
7.3.1 Describe and give an example of an artificial (induced) transmutation.
7.3.2 Construct and complete nuclear equations.
7.3.3 Define the term unified atomic mass unit.
7.3.4 Apply the Einstein mass-energy equivalence relationship.
7.3.5 Define the concepts of mass defect, binding energy[] and binding energy[] per nucleon.
7.3.6 Draw and annotate a graph showing the variation with nucleon number of the binding energy[] per nucleon.
7.3.7 Solve problems involving mass defect and binding energy.
Fission[] and fusion.
7.3.8 Describe the processes of nuclear fission[] and nuclear fusion.
7.3.9 Apply the graph in 7.3.6 to account for the energy release in the processes of fission[] and fusion.
7.3.10 State that nuclear fusion is the main source of the Suns energy.
7.3.11 Solve problems involving fission[] and fusion reactions.