9  Motion in fields
Projectile motion[].
9.1.1 State the independence of the vertical and the horizontal components of velocity for a projectile in a uniform field.
9.1.2 Describe and sketch the trajectory of projectile motion[] as parabolic in the absence of air resistance.
9.1.3 Describe qualitatively the effect of air resistance on the trajectory of a projectile.
9.1.4 Solve problems on projectile motion.
Gravitational field, potential and energy.
9.2.1 Define gravitational potential[] and gravitational potential[] energy.
9.2.2 State and apply the expression for gravitational potential[] due to a point mass.
9.2.3 State and apply the formula relating gravitational field strength[] to gravitational potential[] gradient.
9.2.4 Determine the potential due to one or more point masses.
9.2.5 Describe and sketch the pattern of equipotential surfaces due to one and two point masses -  equipotentials
9.2.6 State the relation between equipotential surfaces and gravitational field lines.
9.2.7 Explain the concept of escape speed from a planet.
9.2.8 Derive an expression for the escape speed of an object from the surface of a planet.
9.2.9 Solve problems involving gravitational potential[] energy and gravitational potential.
Electric field, potential and energy.
9.3.1 Define electric potential[] and electric potential[] energy.
9.3.2 State and apply the expression for electric potential[] due to a point charge.
9.3.3 State and apply the formula relating electric field strength[] to electric potential gradient.
9.3.4 Determine the potential due to one or more point charges.
9.3.5 Describe and sketch the pattern of equipotential surfaces due to one and two point charges.
9.3.6 State the relation between equipotential surfaces and electric field lines.
9.3.7 Solve problems involving electric potential energy and electric potential.
Orbital motion.
9.4.1 State that gravitation provides the centripetal force[] for circular orbital motion.
9.4.2 Derive Keplers third law.
9.4.3 Derive expressions for the kinetic energy[], potential energy[] and total energy of an orbiting satellite.
9.4.4 Sketch graphs showing the variation with orbital radius of the kinetic energy, gravitational potential[] energy and total energy[] of a satellite.
9.4.5 Discuss the concept of "weightlessness" in orbital motion, in free fall and in deep space.
9.4.6 Solve problems involving orbital motion.
10  Thermal physics.
Gas laws[].
10.1.1 State the equation of state for an ideal gas.
10.1.2 Describe the difference between an ideal gas and a real gas.
10.1.3 Describe the concept of the absolute zero of temperature[] and the Kelvin scale of temperature.
10.1.4 Solve problems using the equation of state of an ideal gas.
The first law of thermodynamics.
10.2.1 Deduce an expression for the work involved in a volume change of a gas at constant pressure.
10.2.2 State the first law of thermodynamics.
10.2.3 Identify the first law of thermodynamics as a statement of the principle of energy conservation.
10.2.4 Describe the isochoric (isovolumetric), isobaric, isothermal and adiabatic[] changes of state of an ideal gas.
10.2.5 Draw and annotate thermodynamic processes and cycles on P-V diagrams.
10.2.6 Calculate from a P-V diagram the work done[] in a thermodynamic cycle.
10.2.7 Solve problems involving state changes of a gas.
Second law of thermodynamics[] and entropy.
10.3.1 State that the second law of thermodynamics[] implies that thermal energy cannot spontaneously transfer from a region of low temperature[] to a region of high temperature.
10.3.2 State that entropy[] is a system property that expresses the degree of disorder in the system.
10.3.3 State the second law of thermodynamics[] in terms of entropy[] changes.
10.3.4 Discuss examples of natural processes in terms of entropy[] changes.
11  Wave phenomena
Standing (stationary) waves.
11.1.1 Describe the nature of standing (stationary) waves.
11.1.2 Explain the formation of one-dimensional standing waves.
11.1.3 Discuss the modes of vibration of strings and air in open and in closed pipes.
11.1.4 Compare standing waves and travelling waves.
11.1.5 Solve problems involving standing waves.
Doppler[] effect.
11.2.1 Describe what is meant by the Doppler[] effect.
11.2.2 Explain the Doppler[] effect by reference to wavefront diagrams for moving-detector and moving-source situations.
11.2.3 Apply the Doppler[] effect equations for sound.
11.2.4 Solve problems on the Doppler[] effect for sound.
11.2.5 Solve problems on the Doppler[] effect for electromagnetic waves using the approximation Δf = fv/c.
11.2.6 Outline an example in which the Doppler[] effect is used to measure speed.
Diffraction[] at a single slit.
11.3.1 Sketch the variation with angle of diffraction[] of the relative intensity of light diffracted at a single slit.
11.3.2 Derive the formula θ = λ/b for the position of the first minimum of the diffraction[] pattern produced at a single slit.
11.3.3 Solve problems involving single-slit diffraction.
11.4.1 Sketch the variation with angle of diffraction[] of the relative intensity of light emitted by two point sources that has been diffracted at a single slit.
11.4.2 State the Rayleigh criterion for images of two sources to be just resolved.
11.4.3 Describe the significance of resolution[] in the development of devices such as CDs and DVDs, the electron microscope and radio telescopes.
11.4.4 Solve problems involving resolution.
11.5.1 Describe what is meant by polarized light.
11.5.2 Describe polarization by reflection[].
11.5.3 State and apply Brewsters law.
11.5.4 Explain the terms polarizer and analyser.
11.5.5 Calculate the intensity of a transmitted beam of polarized light using Malus law.
11.5.6 Describe what is meant by an optically active substance.
11.5.7 Describe the use of polarization in the determination of the concentration of certain solutions.
11.5.8 Outline qualitatively how polarization may be used in stress analysis.
11.5.9 Outline qualitatively the action of liquid-crystal displays (LCDs).
11.5.10 Solve problems involving the polarization of light.
12  Electromagnetic induction.
Induced electromotive force (emf).
12.1.1 Describe the inducing of an emf by relative motion between a conductor and a magnetic field.
12.1.2 Derive the formula for the emf induced in a straight conductor moving in a magnetic field.
12.1.3 Define magnetic flux and magnetic flux linkage.
12.1.4 Describe the production of an induced emf by a time-changing magnetic flux.
12.1.5 State Faradays law and Lenzs law.
12.1.6 Solve electromagnetic induction problems.
Alternating current.
12.2.1 Describe the emf induced in a coil rotating within a uniform magnetic field.
12.2.2 Explain the operation of a basic alternating current (ac) generator.
12.2.3 Describe the effect on the induced emf of changing the generator[] frequency.
12.2.4 Discuss what is meant by the root mean squared (rms) value of an alternating current or voltage.
12.2.5 State the relation between peak and rms values for sinusoidal currents and voltages.
12.2.6 Solve problems using peak and rms values.
12.2.7 Solve ac circuit problems for ohmic resistors.
12.2.8 Describe the operation of an ideal transformer[].
12.2.9 Solve problems on the operation of ideal transformers.
Transmission of electrical power[].
12.3.1 Outline the reasons for power[] losses in transmission lines and real transformers.
12.3.2 Explain the use of high-voltage step-up and step-down transformers in the transmission of electrical power[].
12.3.3 Solve problems on the operation of real transformers and power[] transmission.
12.3.4 Suggest how extra-low-frequency electromagnetic fields, such as those created by electrical appliances and power[] lines, induce currents within a human body.
12.3.5 Discuss some of the possible risks involved in living and working near high-voltage power[] lines.
13  Quantum physics and nuclear physics
Quantum physics.
The quantum nature of radiation.
13.1.1 Describe the photoelectric effect[].
13.1.2 Describe the concept of the photon and use it to explain the photoelectric effect.
13.1.3 Describe and explain an experiment to test the Einstein model.
13.1.4 Solve problems involving the photoelectric effect[].
The wave nature of matter.
13.1.5 Describe the de Broglie[] hypothesis and the concept of matter waves.
13.1.6 Outline an experiment to verify the de Broglie[] hypothesis.
13.1.7 Solve problems involving matter waves.
Atomic spectra and atomic energy states.
13.1.8 Outline a laboratory procedure for producing and observing atomic spectra.
13.1.9 Explain how atomic spectra provide evidence for the quantization of energy in atoms.
13.1.10 Calculate wavelengths of spectral lines from energy level differences and vice versa.
13.1.11 Explain the origin of atomic energy levels in terms of the "electron in a box" model.
13.1.12 Outline the Schrodinger model of the hydrogen atom.
13.1.13 Outline the Heisenberg uncertainty principle with regard to position-momentum and time-energy.
Nuclear physics
13.2.1 Explain how the radii of nuclei may be estimated from charged particle scattering experiments.
13.2.2 Describe how the masses of nuclei may be determined using a Bainbridge mass spectrometer.
13.2.3 Describe one piece of evidence fo the existence of nuclear energy levels.
Radioactive decay.
13.2.4 Describe β+ decay, including the existence of the neutrino.
13.2.5 State the radioactive decay law as an exponential function and define the decay constant.
13.2.6 Derive the relationship between decay constant[] and half-life.
13.2.7 Outline methods for measuring the half-life of an isotope.
13.2.8 Solve problems involving radioactive half-life.

14  Digital technology

Analogue and digital signals.
14.1.1 Solve problems involving the conversion between binary[] numbers and decimal numbers.
14.1.2 Describe different means of storage of information in both analogue and digital forms.
14.1.3 Explain how interference of light is used to recover information stored on a CD.
14.1.4 Calculate an appropriate depth for a pit from the wavelength of the laser light.
14.1.5 Solve problems on CDs and DVDs related to data storage capacity.
14.1.6 Discuss the advantage of the storage of information in digital rather than analogue form.
14.1.7 Discuss the implications for society of ever-increasing capability of data storage.
Data capture; digital imaging using charge-coupled devices (CCDs).
14.2.1 Define capacitance.
14.2.2 Describe the structure of a charge-couple device (CCD).
14.2.3 Explain how incident light causes charge to build up within a pixel.
14.2.4 Outline how the image on a CCD[] is digitized.
14.2.5 Define quantum efficiency of a pixel.
14.2.6 Define magnification.
14.2.7 State that two points on an object may be just resolved on a CCD[] if the images of the points are at least two pixels apart.
14.2.8 Discuss the effects of quantum efficiency, magnification and resolution[] on the quality of the processed image.
14.2.9 Describe a range of practical uses of a CCD, and list some advantages compared with the use of film.
14.2.10 Outline how the image stored in a CCD[] is retrieved.
14.2.11 Solve problems involving the use of CCDs.