Relativity and particle physics.  
Introduction to relativity [link]  
Frames of reference.  
H.1.1  Describe what is meant by a frame of reference. 
H.1.2  Describe what is meant by a Galilean transformation. 
H.1.3  Solve problems involving relative velocities using the Galilean transformation equations. 
Concepts and postulates of special relativity.  
H.2.1  Describe what is meant by an inertial frame of reference. 
H.2.2  State the two postulates of the special theory of relativity. 
H.2.3  Discuss the concept of simultaneity. 
Relativistic kinematics.  
Time dilation.  
H.3.1  Describe the concept of a light clock. 
H.3.2  Define proper time interval. 
H.3.3  Derive the time dilation formula. 
H.3.4  Sketch and annotate a graph showing the variation with relative velocity^{[]} of the Lorentz factor. 
H.3.5  Solve problems involving time dilation. 
Length contraction.  
H.3.6  Define proper length. 
H.3.7  Describe the phenomenon of length contraction. 
H.3.8  Solve problems involving length contraction. 
Some consequences of special relativity.  
The twin paradox.  
H.4.1  Describe how the concept of time dilation leads to the "twin paradox". 
H.4.2  Discuss the HafeleKeating experiment. 
Velocity addition.  
H.4.3  Solve onedimensional problems involving the relativistic addition of velocities. 
Mass and energy.  
H.4.4  State the formula representing the equivalence of mass and energy. 
H.4.5  Define rest mass. 
H.4.6  Distinguish between the energy of a body at rest and its total energy^{[]} when moving. 
H.4.7  Explain why no object can ever attain the speed of light in a vacuum. 
H.4.8  Determine the total energy^{[]} of an accelerated particle. 
Evidence to support special relativity.  
H.5.1  Discuss muon decay as experimental evidence to support special relativity. 
H.5.2  Solve problems involving the muon decay experiment. 
H.5.3  Outline the MichelsonMorley experiment. 
H.5.4  Discuss the result of the MichelsonMorley experiment and its implication. 
H.5.5  Outline an experiment that indicates that the speed of light in vacuum is independent of its source. 
Relativistic momentum and energy.  
H.6.1  Apply the relation for the relativistic momentum p = γm_{0}u of particles. 
H.6.2  Apply the formula E_{K} = (γ1)m_{0}c² for the kinetic energy^{[]} of a particle. 
H.6.3  Solve problems involving relativistic momentum and energy. 
General relativity.  
The equivalence principle.  
H.7.1  Explain the difference between the terms gravitational mass and inertial mass. 
H.7.2  Describe and discuss Einsteins principle of equivalence. 
H.7.3  Deduce that the principle of equivalence predicts bending of light rays in a gravitational field. 
H.7.4  Deduce that the principle of equivalence predicts that time slows down near a massive body. 
Spacetime.  
H.7.5  Describe the concept of spacetime. 
H.7.6  State that moving objects follow the shortest path between two points in spacetime. 
H.7.7  Explain gravitational attraction in terms of the warping of spacetime by matter. 
Black holes.  
H.7.8  Describe black holes. 
H.7.9  Define the term Schwarzschild radius. 
H.7.10  Calculate the Schwarzschild radius. 
H.7.11  Solve problems involving time dilation close to a black hole. 
Gravitational redshift.  
H.7.12  Describe the concept of gravitational redshift. 
H.7.13  Solve problems involving frequency shifts between different points in a uniform gravitational field. 
H.7.14  Solve problems using the gravitational time dilation formula. 
Evidence to support general relativity.  
H.8.1  Outline an experiment for the bending of EM waves by a massive object. 
H.8.2  Describe gravitational lensing. 
H.8.3  Outline an experiment that provides evidence for gravitational redshift. 
Medical physics. 

The ear and hearing.  
I.1.1  Describe the basic structure of the human ear. 
I.1.2  State and explain how sound pressure variations in air are changed into larger pressure variations in the cochlear fluid. 
I.1.3  State the range of audible frequencies experienced by a person with normal hearing. 
I.1.4  State and explain that a change in observed loudness is the response of the ear to a change in intensity. 
I.1.5  State and explain that there is a logarithmic response of the ear to intensity. 
I.1.6  Define intensity and also intensity level (IL). 
I.1.7  State the approximate magnitude of the intensity level at which discomfort is experienced by a person with normal hearing. 
I.1.8  Solve problems involving intensity levels. 
I.1.9  Describe the effects on hearing of shortterm and longterm exposure to noise. 
I.1.10  Analyse and give a simple interpretation of graphs where IL is plotted against the logarithm of frequency for normal and for defective hearing. 
Medical imaging.  
Xrays.  
I.2.1  Define the terms attenuation coefficient and halfvalue thickness. 
I.2.2  Derive the relation between attenuation coefficient and halfvalue thickness. 
I.2.3  Solve problems using the equation I=I_{0}e^{µx}. 
I.2.4  Describe Xray detection, recording and display techniques. 
I.2.5  Explain standard Xray imaging techniques used in medicine. 
I.2.6  Outline the principles of computed tomography (CT). 
Ultrasound.  
I.2.7  Describe the principles of the generation and the detection of ultrasound using piezoelectric crystals. 
I.2.8  Define acoustic impedance as the product of the density of a substance and the speed of sound in that substance. 
I.2.9  Solve problems involving acoustic impedance. 
I.2.10  Outline the differences between Ascans and Bscans. 
I.2.11  Identify factors that affect the choice of diagnostic frequency. 
NMR and lasers.  
I.2.12  Outline the basic principles of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging. 
I.2.13  Describe examples of the use of lasers in clinical diagnosis and therapy. 
Radiation in medicine.  
I.3.1  State the meanings of the terms exposure, absorbed dose, quality factor (relative biological effectiveness) and dose equivalent as used in radiation dosimetry. 
I.3.2  Discuss the precautions taken in situations involving different types of radiation. 
I.3.3  Discuss the concept of balanced risk. 
I.3.4  Distinguish between physical halflife, biological halflife and effective halflife. 
I.3.5  Solve problems invovling radiation dosimetry. 
I.3.6  Outline the basis of radiation therapy for cancer. 
I.3.7  Solve problems involving the choice of radioisotope suitable for a particular diagnostic or therapeutic application. 
I.3.8  Solve problems involving particular diagnostic applications. 
Particle physics. 

Particles and interactions.  
Description and classification of particles.  
J.1.1  State what is meant by an elementary particle. 
J.1.2  Identify elementary particles. 
J.1.3  Describe particles in terms of mass and various quantum numbers. 
J.1.4  Classify particles according to spin. 
J.1.5  State what is meant by an antiparticle. 
J.1.6  State the Pauli exclusion principle. 
Fundamental interactions^{[]}.  
J.1.7  List the fundamental interactions. 
J.1.8  Describe the fundamental interactions^{[]} in terms of exchange particles^{[]}. 
J.1.9  Discuss the uncertainty principle for time and energy in the context of particle creation. 
Feynman diagrams.  
J.1.10  Describe what is meant by a Feynman diagram. 
J.1.11  Discuss how a Feynman diagram may be used to calculate probabilities for fundamental processes. 
J.1.12  Describe what is meant by virtual particles. 
J.1.13  Apply the formula for the range R for interactions involving the exchange of a particle. 
J.1.14  Describe pair annihilaiton and pair production through Feynman diagrams. 
J.1.15  Predict particle processes using Feynman diagrams. 
Particle accelerators and detectors.  
Particle accelerators.  
J.2.1  Explain the need for high energies in order to produce particles of large mass. 
J.2.2  Explain the need for high energies in order to resolve particles of small size. 
J.2.3  Outline the structure and operation of a linear accelerator and of a cyclotron. 
J.2.4  Outline the structure and explain the operation of a synchrotron. 
J.2.5  State what is meant by bremsstrahlung (braking) radiation. 
J.2.6  Compare the advantages and disadvantages of linear accelerators, cyclotrons and synchrotrons. 
J.2.7  Solve problems related to the production of particles in accelerators. 
J.2.8  Particle detectors. 
J.2.9  Outline the structure and operation of the bubble chamber, the photomultiplier and the wire chamber. 
J.2.10  Outline international aspects of research into highenergy particle physics research. 
Quarks.  
J.3.1  List the six types of quark. 
J.3.2  State the content, in terms of quarks and antiquarks, of hadrons (that is, baryons and mesons). 
J.3.3  State the quark content of the proton and the neutron. 
J.3.4  Define baryon number and apply the law of conservation of baryon number. 
J.3.5  Deduce the spin structure of hadrons (that is, baryons and mesons). 
J.3.6  Explain the need for colour in forming bound states of quarks. 
J.3.7  State the colour of quarks and gluons. 
J.3.8  Outline the concept of strangeness. 
J.3.9  Discuss quark confinement. 
J.3.10  Discuss the interaction that binds nucleons in terms of the colour force between quarks. 
Leptons and the standard model.  
J.4.1  State the threefamily structure of quarks and leptons in the standard model. 
J.4.2  State the lepton number of the leptons in each family. 
J.4.3  Solve problems invovling conservation laws^{[]} in particle reactions. 
J.4.4  Evaluate the significance of the Higgs particle (boson). 
Experimental evidence for the quark and standard models.  
J.5.1  State what is meant by deep inelastic scattering. 
J.5.2  Analyse the results of deep inelastic scattering experiments. 
J.5.3  Describe what is meant by asymptotic freedom. 
J.5.4  Describe what is meant by neutral current. 
J.5.5  Describe how the existence of a neutral current is evidence for the standard model. 
Cosmology and strings.  
J.6.1  State the order of magnitude of the temperature^{[]} change of the universe since the Big Bang. 
J.6.2  Solve problems involving particle interactions in the early universe. 
J.6.3  State that the early universe contained almost equal numbers of particles and antiparticles. 
J.6.4  Suggest a mechanism by which the predominance of matter over antimatter has occurred. 
J.6.5  Describe qualitatively the theory of strings. 